Vol 56, No 3 (2005)
Review paper
Published online: 2006-03-24

open access

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Gynecomastia - pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment

Izabella Czajka, Wojciech Zgliczyński
Endokrynol Pol 2005;56(3):269-283.


The aim of this review is to present the up-to-date information concerning the prevalence, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of gynecomastia. Gynecomastia is a benign, unilateral or bilateral enlargement of the male breast due to the imbalance between the androgens and estrogens at the breast tissue level. This clinical condition is particularly common in boys during puberty and in aging men. The breast enlargement, especially with accompanying pain can cause serious psychological problem. At the present time there are no generally accepted procedures for the evaluation and treatment of patients with gynecomastia. In the article such recommendations were proposed. There are many studies conducted to find the safe and efficient medical therapy that could ameliorate the quality of life of the patients with gynecomastia. The information on the available treatment options were also presented.

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