open access

Vol 56, No 6 (2005)
Review article
Published online: 2006-06-26
Submitted: 2013-02-15
Get Citation

Androgen deficiency in women

Grzegorz Jakiel, Arkadiusz Baran
Endokrynologia Polska 2005;56(6):1016-1020.

open access

Vol 56, No 6 (2005)
Review article
Published online: 2006-06-26
Submitted: 2013-02-15

Abstract

Androgens are defined as the steroids having a binding affinity of the androgen receptor. In the reproduction age a daily production of testosterone is equally divided between the ovaries and adrenal and local tissue conversion of androstenedione and DHEA. After menopause the 80% of testosterone is produced in ovaries, but majority of precursors for peripheral conversion is adrenal origin. Androgen receptors are present throughout in the body; over 200 cellular actions of androgens have been described. Androgenic action is determined by quantitative level of the androgen present in the circulation, its degree of binding to proteins, the degree of interconversion to other androgens and estrogens, and the biological potency and androgen receptor binding affinity of the androgen. The most common clinical symptoms of androgen deficiency are the reduction of sex motivation, sex fantasy, sex enjoyment, sex arousal, vaginal vasocongestion, but also reduction of pubic hair, bone mass, muscle mass, worsening of quality of life (mood, affect, energy), more frequent vasomotors symptoms, insomnia, depression, headache. All these signs and symptoms can be multifactorial. Most common conditions associated with hypoandrogenism in women are hypothalamic-pituitary abnormalities, lack or insufficiency of ovaries, adrenal insufficiency, glucocorticoid therapy, exogenous estrogen administration. Besides the clinical picture the free testosterone measuring is important for diagnosis. The method of choice of this measure is equilibrium dialysis assay. Despite of clinical importance of androgen insufficiency in women, none of methods of androgen substitution is approved by FDA.

Abstract

Androgens are defined as the steroids having a binding affinity of the androgen receptor. In the reproduction age a daily production of testosterone is equally divided between the ovaries and adrenal and local tissue conversion of androstenedione and DHEA. After menopause the 80% of testosterone is produced in ovaries, but majority of precursors for peripheral conversion is adrenal origin. Androgen receptors are present throughout in the body; over 200 cellular actions of androgens have been described. Androgenic action is determined by quantitative level of the androgen present in the circulation, its degree of binding to proteins, the degree of interconversion to other androgens and estrogens, and the biological potency and androgen receptor binding affinity of the androgen. The most common clinical symptoms of androgen deficiency are the reduction of sex motivation, sex fantasy, sex enjoyment, sex arousal, vaginal vasocongestion, but also reduction of pubic hair, bone mass, muscle mass, worsening of quality of life (mood, affect, energy), more frequent vasomotors symptoms, insomnia, depression, headache. All these signs and symptoms can be multifactorial. Most common conditions associated with hypoandrogenism in women are hypothalamic-pituitary abnormalities, lack or insufficiency of ovaries, adrenal insufficiency, glucocorticoid therapy, exogenous estrogen administration. Besides the clinical picture the free testosterone measuring is important for diagnosis. The method of choice of this measure is equilibrium dialysis assay. Despite of clinical importance of androgen insufficiency in women, none of methods of androgen substitution is approved by FDA.
Get Citation

Keywords

female androgen deficiency; testosterone; free testosterone; female sexual dysfunction; testosterone therapy in women

About this article
Title

Androgen deficiency in women

Journal

Endokrynologia Polska

Issue

Vol 56, No 6 (2005)

Pages

1016-1020

Published online

2006-06-26

Bibliographic record

Endokrynologia Polska 2005;56(6):1016-1020.

Keywords

female androgen deficiency
testosterone
free testosterone
female sexual dysfunction
testosterone therapy in women

Authors

Grzegorz Jakiel
Arkadiusz Baran

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