open access

Vol 57, No 3 (2006)
Review article
Published online: 2006-06-28
Submitted: 2013-02-15
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The effect of Chernobyl accident on the development of malignant diseases - situation after 20 years

Anna Zonenberg, Wiesław Zarzycki, Marcin Leoniak
Endokrynologia Polska 2006;57(3):244-252.

open access

Vol 57, No 3 (2006)
Review article
Published online: 2006-06-28
Submitted: 2013-02-15

Abstract

The accident that occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986, released large quantities of radionuclides - among them radioiodine - into the atmosphere, thereby raising public concerns about its influence on thyroid structure and function, especially the development of malignancy. There were even reports about 700 deaths due to thyroid carcinoma in Russian Federation, Ukraine and Belarus, resulting from the accident. In this review we discussed the incidence of thyroid cancer in different parts of the world, especially in heavily contaminated countries, as Ukraine and Belarus, and the possible link between radioisotope activity in the thyroid and the development of malignancy. The study carried out in Minsk showed 40-fold increase of the incidence of thyroid cancer in the years 1986-1994, in comparison to the period 1977-1985. An increase of the incidence of thyroid cancer has generally been observed in many countries after the Chernobyl accident. We focused on the factors that may have an influence on this phenomenon, especially diagnostic tests, health care, social and environmental factors, like iodine level in water and soil. The results of molecular biology studies, e.g. RET translocation in carcinoma type RET/PTC1 in elderly and RET/PTC3 in children, and expression Ax1 and Gas6 in children were reviewed as well. We also mentioned other thyroid diseases, like nodular goitre, cysts, the disturbance of thyroid function and autoimmunity, possibly linked to the radiation after Chernobyl accident. Data obtained from the regions near Chernobyl showed no increased risk of other types of malignancy (leukaemia, Hodgkin’s and non Hodgkin’s lymphoma) in 1986-1996. In this article the epidemiology of thyroid diseases in Poland was also reviewed.

Abstract

The accident that occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986, released large quantities of radionuclides - among them radioiodine - into the atmosphere, thereby raising public concerns about its influence on thyroid structure and function, especially the development of malignancy. There were even reports about 700 deaths due to thyroid carcinoma in Russian Federation, Ukraine and Belarus, resulting from the accident. In this review we discussed the incidence of thyroid cancer in different parts of the world, especially in heavily contaminated countries, as Ukraine and Belarus, and the possible link between radioisotope activity in the thyroid and the development of malignancy. The study carried out in Minsk showed 40-fold increase of the incidence of thyroid cancer in the years 1986-1994, in comparison to the period 1977-1985. An increase of the incidence of thyroid cancer has generally been observed in many countries after the Chernobyl accident. We focused on the factors that may have an influence on this phenomenon, especially diagnostic tests, health care, social and environmental factors, like iodine level in water and soil. The results of molecular biology studies, e.g. RET translocation in carcinoma type RET/PTC1 in elderly and RET/PTC3 in children, and expression Ax1 and Gas6 in children were reviewed as well. We also mentioned other thyroid diseases, like nodular goitre, cysts, the disturbance of thyroid function and autoimmunity, possibly linked to the radiation after Chernobyl accident. Data obtained from the regions near Chernobyl showed no increased risk of other types of malignancy (leukaemia, Hodgkin’s and non Hodgkin’s lymphoma) in 1986-1996. In this article the epidemiology of thyroid diseases in Poland was also reviewed.
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Keywords

Chernobyl accident; malignant diseases; thyroid carcinoma; epidemiology

About this article
Title

The effect of Chernobyl accident on the development of malignant diseases - situation after 20 years

Journal

Endokrynologia Polska

Issue

Vol 57, No 3 (2006)

Pages

244-252

Published online

2006-06-28

Bibliographic record

Endokrynologia Polska 2006;57(3):244-252.

Keywords

Chernobyl accident
malignant diseases
thyroid carcinoma
epidemiology

Authors

Anna Zonenberg
Wiesław Zarzycki
Marcin Leoniak

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