open access

Vol 57, No 6 (2006)
Postgraduate education
Published online: 2006-11-29
Submitted: 2013-02-15
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Hyperprolactinemia: causes, diagnosis, and treatment

Michał Karasek, Marek Pawlikowski, Andrzej Lewiński
Endokrynologia Polska 2006;57(6):656-662.

open access

Vol 57, No 6 (2006)
Postgraduate education
Published online: 2006-11-29
Submitted: 2013-02-15

Abstract

The basic data on hyperprolactinemia (i.e. an excess of PRL above a reference laboratory’s upper limits), the most common endocrine disorder of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis are given in this review. The following issues are discussed: regulation of prolactin (Prl) secretion, definition of hyperprolactinemia, its etiology and pathogenesis as well as its symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment (including medical and surgical therapy). It should be stressed that finding of elevated PRL serum concentrations constitute the beginning of diagnostic procedure and, after exclusion of physiologic, pharmacologic, and other organic causes of increased PRL levels, should be followed by detailed diagnosis including MRI. In patients in whom hyperprolactinemia has been confirmed the treatment with dopamine agonists (with prevalence of cabergoline, followed by quinagoline) is currently considered first-choice therapy. Surgery should be performed only in the patients resistant or intolerant to these agents, or in patients who refuse long-term therapy.

Abstract

The basic data on hyperprolactinemia (i.e. an excess of PRL above a reference laboratory’s upper limits), the most common endocrine disorder of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis are given in this review. The following issues are discussed: regulation of prolactin (Prl) secretion, definition of hyperprolactinemia, its etiology and pathogenesis as well as its symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment (including medical and surgical therapy). It should be stressed that finding of elevated PRL serum concentrations constitute the beginning of diagnostic procedure and, after exclusion of physiologic, pharmacologic, and other organic causes of increased PRL levels, should be followed by detailed diagnosis including MRI. In patients in whom hyperprolactinemia has been confirmed the treatment with dopamine agonists (with prevalence of cabergoline, followed by quinagoline) is currently considered first-choice therapy. Surgery should be performed only in the patients resistant or intolerant to these agents, or in patients who refuse long-term therapy.
Get Citation

Keywords

prolactin; hyperprolactinemia; pituitary adenomas

About this article
Title

Hyperprolactinemia: causes, diagnosis, and treatment

Journal

Endokrynologia Polska

Issue

Vol 57, No 6 (2006)

Pages

656-662

Published online

2006-11-29

Bibliographic record

Endokrynologia Polska 2006;57(6):656-662.

Keywords

prolactin
hyperprolactinemia
pituitary adenomas

Authors

Michał Karasek
Marek Pawlikowski
Andrzej Lewiński

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