open access

Vol 59, No 4 (2008)
Original papers
Published online: 2008-07-09
Submitted: 2013-02-15
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Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP-4) levels do not change after oral glucose tolerance test and after dexamethasone, but correlate with some indices of insulin resistance in humans

Krzysztof C. Lewandowski, Magdalena Basinska-Lewandowska, Małgorzata Bieńkiewicz, Harpal S. Randeva, Andrzej Lewiński
Endokrynologia Polska 2008;59(4):305-311.

open access

Vol 59, No 4 (2008)
Original papers
Published online: 2008-07-09
Submitted: 2013-02-15

Abstract


Introduction: Secretory products from adipocytes may contribute to deterioration in glycaemic control and increased insulin resistance (IR). Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP-4) may increase IR in mice, with elevated levels in insulin-resistant mice and humans with obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanisms regulating RBP-4 synthesis remain not fully understood. It is not clear whether short-term glucose-induced hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia as well as glucocorticosteroid-induced increase in IR might be reflected in alterations in serum RBP-4 levels in humans. In order to investigate this, we measured serum RBP-4, glucose and insulin concentrations during 75.0 gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) - Study 1, as well as before and after oral administration of dexamethasone - Study 2.
Material and methods: Both studies included 35 subjects (8 males), age (mean ± SD) 39.1 ± 15.6 years, BMI 35.8 ± 8.7 kg/m2. Twenty-four of those subjects (5 males), age 38.7 ± 15.1 years, BMI 34.4 ± 8.3 kg/m2, had 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) - Study 1. Blood samples were taken before (0 minutes), and at 60 and 120 minutes of OGTT. 17 subjects (3 males, 4 subjects with type 2 diabetes), age 43.1 ± 18.1 years, BMI 36.7 ± 9.0 kg/m2 underwent screening for Cushing’s disease/syndrome (Study 2). Dexamethasone was administered in a dose of 0.5 mg every 6 hours for 48 hours. Fasting serum concentrations of RBP-4, glucose and insulin were assessed before (D0) and after 48 hours of dexamethasone administration (D2). IR was assessed by HOMA in all non-diabetic subjects and in subjects participating in study 1 also by Insulin Resistance Index (IRI), which takes into account glucose and insulin levels during OGTT.
Results: Glucose administration resulted in significant increases in insulin and glucose (p < 0.0001). There was, however, no change in RBP-4 concentrations (124.1 ± 32 mg/ml at 0 minutes, 123 ± 35 mg/ml at 60 minutes and 126.5 ± 37.5 mg/ml at 120 minutes of OGTT, p = ns). All subjects in Study 2 achieved suppression of cortisol below 50 nmo/l. Dexamethasone administration resulted in an increase in fasting insulin (from 11.6 ± 6.8 to 17.1 ± 7.2 μU/ml; p = 0.003), and an increase in HOMA (from 2.73 ± 1.74 to 4.02 ± 2.27; p = 0.015), although without a significant change in RBP-4 levels (119 ± 26.8 vs. 117.5 ± 24.8 mg/ml, p = ns). RBP-4 correlated with fasting insulin (r = 0.40, p = 0.025), fasting glucose (r = 0.41, p = 0.02) and HOMA (r = 0.43, p = 0.015), but not with IRI (r = 0.19, p = 0.31). There was, however, only a moderate correlation between HOMA and IRI (r = 0.49 [r2 = 0.24]; p = 0.006, Spearman rank correlation), while the best correlation was obtained between the product of glucose and insulin levels at 60 min of OGTT and IRI in a non-linear model (r = 0.94 [r2 = 0.88]; p<0.00001). In subjects who received dexamethasone, a positive correlation between RBP-4 and HOMA (p = 0.01) was lost after two days of dexamethasone administration (p = 0.61).
Conclusions: RBP-4 levels do not change during oral glucose tolerance test or after a dexamethasone-induced increase in insulin resistance. This implies that it is highly unlikely that RBP-4 is involved in short-term regulation of glucose homeostasis in humans and that it responds to short-term changes in insulin resistance. A moderate correlation between RBP-4 and some insulin resistance indices (HOMA) does not exclude the fact that RBP-4 might be one of many factors that can influence insulin sensitivity in humans.

Abstract


Introduction: Secretory products from adipocytes may contribute to deterioration in glycaemic control and increased insulin resistance (IR). Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP-4) may increase IR in mice, with elevated levels in insulin-resistant mice and humans with obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanisms regulating RBP-4 synthesis remain not fully understood. It is not clear whether short-term glucose-induced hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia as well as glucocorticosteroid-induced increase in IR might be reflected in alterations in serum RBP-4 levels in humans. In order to investigate this, we measured serum RBP-4, glucose and insulin concentrations during 75.0 gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) - Study 1, as well as before and after oral administration of dexamethasone - Study 2.
Material and methods: Both studies included 35 subjects (8 males), age (mean ± SD) 39.1 ± 15.6 years, BMI 35.8 ± 8.7 kg/m2. Twenty-four of those subjects (5 males), age 38.7 ± 15.1 years, BMI 34.4 ± 8.3 kg/m2, had 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) - Study 1. Blood samples were taken before (0 minutes), and at 60 and 120 minutes of OGTT. 17 subjects (3 males, 4 subjects with type 2 diabetes), age 43.1 ± 18.1 years, BMI 36.7 ± 9.0 kg/m2 underwent screening for Cushing’s disease/syndrome (Study 2). Dexamethasone was administered in a dose of 0.5 mg every 6 hours for 48 hours. Fasting serum concentrations of RBP-4, glucose and insulin were assessed before (D0) and after 48 hours of dexamethasone administration (D2). IR was assessed by HOMA in all non-diabetic subjects and in subjects participating in study 1 also by Insulin Resistance Index (IRI), which takes into account glucose and insulin levels during OGTT.
Results: Glucose administration resulted in significant increases in insulin and glucose (p < 0.0001). There was, however, no change in RBP-4 concentrations (124.1 ± 32 mg/ml at 0 minutes, 123 ± 35 mg/ml at 60 minutes and 126.5 ± 37.5 mg/ml at 120 minutes of OGTT, p = ns). All subjects in Study 2 achieved suppression of cortisol below 50 nmo/l. Dexamethasone administration resulted in an increase in fasting insulin (from 11.6 ± 6.8 to 17.1 ± 7.2 μU/ml; p = 0.003), and an increase in HOMA (from 2.73 ± 1.74 to 4.02 ± 2.27; p = 0.015), although without a significant change in RBP-4 levels (119 ± 26.8 vs. 117.5 ± 24.8 mg/ml, p = ns). RBP-4 correlated with fasting insulin (r = 0.40, p = 0.025), fasting glucose (r = 0.41, p = 0.02) and HOMA (r = 0.43, p = 0.015), but not with IRI (r = 0.19, p = 0.31). There was, however, only a moderate correlation between HOMA and IRI (r = 0.49 [r2 = 0.24]; p = 0.006, Spearman rank correlation), while the best correlation was obtained between the product of glucose and insulin levels at 60 min of OGTT and IRI in a non-linear model (r = 0.94 [r2 = 0.88]; p<0.00001). In subjects who received dexamethasone, a positive correlation between RBP-4 and HOMA (p = 0.01) was lost after two days of dexamethasone administration (p = 0.61).
Conclusions: RBP-4 levels do not change during oral glucose tolerance test or after a dexamethasone-induced increase in insulin resistance. This implies that it is highly unlikely that RBP-4 is involved in short-term regulation of glucose homeostasis in humans and that it responds to short-term changes in insulin resistance. A moderate correlation between RBP-4 and some insulin resistance indices (HOMA) does not exclude the fact that RBP-4 might be one of many factors that can influence insulin sensitivity in humans.
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Keywords

retinol-binding protein 4; glucose tolerance; dexamethasone; insulin resistance

About this article
Title

Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP-4) levels do not change after oral glucose tolerance test and after dexamethasone, but correlate with some indices of insulin resistance in humans

Journal

Endokrynologia Polska

Issue

Vol 59, No 4 (2008)

Pages

305-311

Published online

2008-07-09

Bibliographic record

Endokrynologia Polska 2008;59(4):305-311.

Keywords

retinol-binding protein 4
glucose tolerance
dexamethasone
insulin resistance

Authors

Krzysztof C. Lewandowski
Magdalena Basinska-Lewandowska
Małgorzata Bieńkiewicz
Harpal S. Randeva
Andrzej Lewiński

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