open access

Vol 60, No 3 (2009)
Postgraduate education
Published online: 2009-04-27
Submitted: 2013-02-15
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Pathogenesis, evaluation and treatment of hypogonadism in men

Michał Rabijewski, Wojciech Zgliczyński
Endokrynologia Polska 2009;60(3):222-233.

open access

Vol 60, No 3 (2009)
Postgraduate education
Published online: 2009-04-27
Submitted: 2013-02-15

Abstract

Hypogonadism in men is defined as a complex of signs and symptoms due to testosterone deficiency or inappropriate production, which occurs in about 1-2%. Symptoms of hypogonadism depend primarily on the age of the male patients at the time of development of the hypogonadism (pre- or postpubertal). The dominant findings are: impaired puberty, decrease of virilization, infertility or decrease of spermatogenesis, impotence and gynecomastia. Classically hipogonadism is divided into primary (hypergonadotropic) and secondary (hypogonadotropic). The most common causes of primary hypogonadism is Klinefelter’s syndrome, while secondary - pituitary tumors. "Peripheral" hypogonadism results from androgen receptor polymorphism. The role of therapy of hypogonadism is to restore or maintain proper spermatogenesis as well as testosterone replacement therapy. Gonadotropin and testosterone therapy is available in treatment of hypogonadism in men. The treatment strategy depends on the age of patient and the goals of therapy (restore of fertility and/or produce and maintain of virilization). The gonadototropins and GnRH are useful in spermetogenesis stimulation. The testosterone replacement therapy is efficacious and safe. Testosterone esters and gels are widely applied.

Abstract

Hypogonadism in men is defined as a complex of signs and symptoms due to testosterone deficiency or inappropriate production, which occurs in about 1-2%. Symptoms of hypogonadism depend primarily on the age of the male patients at the time of development of the hypogonadism (pre- or postpubertal). The dominant findings are: impaired puberty, decrease of virilization, infertility or decrease of spermatogenesis, impotence and gynecomastia. Classically hipogonadism is divided into primary (hypergonadotropic) and secondary (hypogonadotropic). The most common causes of primary hypogonadism is Klinefelter’s syndrome, while secondary - pituitary tumors. "Peripheral" hypogonadism results from androgen receptor polymorphism. The role of therapy of hypogonadism is to restore or maintain proper spermatogenesis as well as testosterone replacement therapy. Gonadotropin and testosterone therapy is available in treatment of hypogonadism in men. The treatment strategy depends on the age of patient and the goals of therapy (restore of fertility and/or produce and maintain of virilization). The gonadototropins and GnRH are useful in spermetogenesis stimulation. The testosterone replacement therapy is efficacious and safe. Testosterone esters and gels are widely applied.
Get Citation

Keywords

testosterone; testis; hypophysis; hypogonadism

About this article
Title

Pathogenesis, evaluation and treatment of hypogonadism in men

Journal

Endokrynologia Polska

Issue

Vol 60, No 3 (2009)

Pages

222-233

Published online

2009-04-27

Bibliographic record

Endokrynologia Polska 2009;60(3):222-233.

Keywords

testosterone
testis
hypophysis
hypogonadism

Authors

Michał Rabijewski
Wojciech Zgliczyński

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