open access

Vol 61, No 1 (2010)
Review article
Published online: 2010-03-04
Submitted: 2013-02-15
Get Citation

Aromatase research and its clinical significance

Izabella Czajka-Oraniec, Evan R. Simpson
Endokrynologia Polska 2010;61(1):126-134.

open access

Vol 61, No 1 (2010)
Review article
Published online: 2010-03-04
Submitted: 2013-02-15

Abstract

Aromatase is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily that catalyzes the conversion of androgens (C19), namely testosterone and androstenedione, into oestrogens (C18), oestradiol, and oestrone, respectively. The enzyme is active in various tissues in both females and males, thus oestrogens are produced not only in gonads but also in extra-gonadal localizations such as brain, adipose tissue, breast, skin, and bone. Aromatase gene CYP19A1 located on chromosome 15 comprises nine coding exons and a number of alternative non-coding first exons that regulate tissue-specific expression. Studies on local regulation of aromatase expression and activity are important for understanding processes such as growth of oestrogen-dependent breast cancer. Rare clinical conditions of aromatase deficiency and excess have revealed some new and unexpected oestrogen functions in metabolism and bone health in both women and men. They were further studied using transgenic animal models such as aromatase knockout mice (ArKO) or (AROM+) mice overexpressing human aromatase. Research on aromatase was important for its practical outcome as it contributed to the development of aromatase inhibitors (AIs), an effective and safe group of drugs for the first-line endocrine therapy of breast cancer. Further studies are needed to establish AIs application in other oestrogen-dependent conditions, to overcome the resistance in breast cancer patients, and to develop tissue-specific selective inhibitors. (Pol J Endocrinol 2010; 61 (1): 126–134)

Abstract

Aromatase is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily that catalyzes the conversion of androgens (C19), namely testosterone and androstenedione, into oestrogens (C18), oestradiol, and oestrone, respectively. The enzyme is active in various tissues in both females and males, thus oestrogens are produced not only in gonads but also in extra-gonadal localizations such as brain, adipose tissue, breast, skin, and bone. Aromatase gene CYP19A1 located on chromosome 15 comprises nine coding exons and a number of alternative non-coding first exons that regulate tissue-specific expression. Studies on local regulation of aromatase expression and activity are important for understanding processes such as growth of oestrogen-dependent breast cancer. Rare clinical conditions of aromatase deficiency and excess have revealed some new and unexpected oestrogen functions in metabolism and bone health in both women and men. They were further studied using transgenic animal models such as aromatase knockout mice (ArKO) or (AROM+) mice overexpressing human aromatase. Research on aromatase was important for its practical outcome as it contributed to the development of aromatase inhibitors (AIs), an effective and safe group of drugs for the first-line endocrine therapy of breast cancer. Further studies are needed to establish AIs application in other oestrogen-dependent conditions, to overcome the resistance in breast cancer patients, and to develop tissue-specific selective inhibitors. (Pol J Endocrinol 2010; 61 (1): 126–134)
Get Citation

Keywords

aromatase; oestrogens; androgens; aromatase inhibitors; breast cancer

About this article
Title

Aromatase research and its clinical significance

Journal

Endokrynologia Polska

Issue

Vol 61, No 1 (2010)

Pages

126-134

Published online

2010-03-04

Bibliographic record

Endokrynologia Polska 2010;61(1):126-134.

Keywords

aromatase
oestrogens
androgens
aromatase inhibitors
breast cancer

Authors

Izabella Czajka-Oraniec
Evan R. Simpson

Important: This website uses cookies.tanya dokter More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

Via MedicaWydawcą serwisu jest  "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., ul. Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl