open access

Vol 62, No 5 (2011)
Review article
Published online: 2011-11-08
Submitted: 2013-02-15
Get Citation

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) — part 2: in endocrinology and oncology

Dariusz Kajdaniuk, Bogdan Marek, Wanda Foltyn, Beata Kos-Kudła
Endokrynologia Polska 2011;62(5):456-464.

open access

Vol 62, No 5 (2011)
Review article
Published online: 2011-11-08
Submitted: 2013-02-15

Abstract

Endocrine glands are well vascularised and the structure of their vessels facilitates the exchange of various substances, including hormones. These glands are a frequent experimental model in research on VEGF and angiogenesis. VEGF participates in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Diabetic nephropathy is in essence a microvascular disease that develops as a result of a confluence of haemodynamic and metabolic perturbations. Diabetic retinopathy is the commonest microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and is the leading cause of blindness. In diabetic retinopathy, ischaemic states, and hence tissue hypoxia and angiogenesis, take place. The participation of angiogenesis and VEGF in the pathogenesis of neoplastic disease has been described in many papers. VEGF protein and mRNA have been found in cancers of the thyroid, bronchus, lungs, oesophagus, stomach, colon, liver, breast, ovary, uterus, kidney, and urinary bladder, and in malignant tumours of the brain and bone. There have been many reports of the connections between the degree of VEGF expression and tumour aggression and prognosis in patients. Richly vascularised are GEP NET. In neuroendocrine tumours, strong expression of VEGF, Flt-1 and KDR in relation to the unchanged surrounding tissues has been demonstrated. Depending on the disease entity or the degree of its severity, attempts to apply angiogenic and antiangiogenic therapy have being made. Antiangiogenic therapy (usually regarded as a form of cancer therapy) is based on: 1. inhibitory effects of proangiogenic ligands and their receptors; 2. stimulation or delivery of angiogenesis inhibitors; and 3. direct destruction of neoplastic tumour vasculature. (Pol J Endocrinol 2011; 62 (5): 456–464)

Abstract

Endocrine glands are well vascularised and the structure of their vessels facilitates the exchange of various substances, including hormones. These glands are a frequent experimental model in research on VEGF and angiogenesis. VEGF participates in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Diabetic nephropathy is in essence a microvascular disease that develops as a result of a confluence of haemodynamic and metabolic perturbations. Diabetic retinopathy is the commonest microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and is the leading cause of blindness. In diabetic retinopathy, ischaemic states, and hence tissue hypoxia and angiogenesis, take place. The participation of angiogenesis and VEGF in the pathogenesis of neoplastic disease has been described in many papers. VEGF protein and mRNA have been found in cancers of the thyroid, bronchus, lungs, oesophagus, stomach, colon, liver, breast, ovary, uterus, kidney, and urinary bladder, and in malignant tumours of the brain and bone. There have been many reports of the connections between the degree of VEGF expression and tumour aggression and prognosis in patients. Richly vascularised are GEP NET. In neuroendocrine tumours, strong expression of VEGF, Flt-1 and KDR in relation to the unchanged surrounding tissues has been demonstrated. Depending on the disease entity or the degree of its severity, attempts to apply angiogenic and antiangiogenic therapy have being made. Antiangiogenic therapy (usually regarded as a form of cancer therapy) is based on: 1. inhibitory effects of proangiogenic ligands and their receptors; 2. stimulation or delivery of angiogenesis inhibitors; and 3. direct destruction of neoplastic tumour vasculature. (Pol J Endocrinol 2011; 62 (5): 456–464)
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Keywords

VEGF; angiogenesis; KDR; Flt-1; endocrine glands; pituitary; thyroid; diabetes mellitus; liver; GEP NET; cancer; neoplasm; hepatocellular carcinoma; oncology; growth factor

About this article
Title

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) — part 2: in endocrinology and oncology

Journal

Endokrynologia Polska

Issue

Vol 62, No 5 (2011)

Pages

456-464

Published online

2011-11-08

Bibliographic record

Endokrynologia Polska 2011;62(5):456-464.

Keywords

VEGF
angiogenesis
KDR
Flt-1
endocrine glands
pituitary
thyroid
diabetes mellitus
liver
GEP NET
cancer
neoplasm
hepatocellular carcinoma
oncology
growth factor

Authors

Dariusz Kajdaniuk
Bogdan Marek
Wanda Foltyn
Beata Kos-Kudła

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