open access

Vol 62, Supp. II (2011)
Review article
Published online: 2011-09-21
Submitted: 2013-02-15
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Parathyroid hormone and its analogues — molecular mechanisms of action and efficacy of osteoporosis therapy

Waldemar Misiorowski

open access

Vol 62, Supp. II (2011)
Review article
Published online: 2011-09-21
Submitted: 2013-02-15

Abstract

Most medical agents currently applied in osteoporosis therapy act by inhibiting bone resorption and reducing bone remodelling, i.e. they inhibit the process of bone mass loss by suppressing bone resorption processes. These drugs provide an ideal therapeutic option to prevent osteoporosis progression. They however have a rather limited usefulness when the disease has already reached its advanced stages with distinctive bone architecture lesions. The fracture risk reduction rate, achieved in the course of anti-resorptive therapy, is insufficient for patients with severe osteoporosis to stop the downward spiral of their quality of life (QoL) with a simultaneously increasing threat of premature death. The activity of the N-terminal fragment of 1–34 human parathormone (teriparatide — 1–34 rhPTH), a parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogue obtained via genetic engineering , is expressed by increased bone metabolism, while promoting new bone tissue formation by stimulating the activity of osteoblasts more than that of osteoclasts. The anabolic activity of PTH includes both its direct effect on the osteoblast cell line, and its indirect actions exerted via its regulatory effects on selected growth factors, e.g. IGF-1 or sclerostin. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the actual anabolic effects of PTH remain mostly still unclear. Clinical studies have demonstrated that therapeutic protocols with the application of PTH analogues provide an effective protection against all osteoporotic fracture types in post-menopausal women and in elderly men with advanced osteoporosis. Particular hopes are pinned on the possibility of applying PTH in the therapy of post-steroid osteoporosis, mainly to suppress bone formation, the most important pathological process in this regard. The relatively short therapy period with a PTH analogue (24 months) should then be replaced and continued by anti-resorptive treatment.
(Pol J Endocrinol 2011; 62 (education supplement II): 32–36)

Abstract

Most medical agents currently applied in osteoporosis therapy act by inhibiting bone resorption and reducing bone remodelling, i.e. they inhibit the process of bone mass loss by suppressing bone resorption processes. These drugs provide an ideal therapeutic option to prevent osteoporosis progression. They however have a rather limited usefulness when the disease has already reached its advanced stages with distinctive bone architecture lesions. The fracture risk reduction rate, achieved in the course of anti-resorptive therapy, is insufficient for patients with severe osteoporosis to stop the downward spiral of their quality of life (QoL) with a simultaneously increasing threat of premature death. The activity of the N-terminal fragment of 1–34 human parathormone (teriparatide — 1–34 rhPTH), a parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogue obtained via genetic engineering , is expressed by increased bone metabolism, while promoting new bone tissue formation by stimulating the activity of osteoblasts more than that of osteoclasts. The anabolic activity of PTH includes both its direct effect on the osteoblast cell line, and its indirect actions exerted via its regulatory effects on selected growth factors, e.g. IGF-1 or sclerostin. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the actual anabolic effects of PTH remain mostly still unclear. Clinical studies have demonstrated that therapeutic protocols with the application of PTH analogues provide an effective protection against all osteoporotic fracture types in post-menopausal women and in elderly men with advanced osteoporosis. Particular hopes are pinned on the possibility of applying PTH in the therapy of post-steroid osteoporosis, mainly to suppress bone formation, the most important pathological process in this regard. The relatively short therapy period with a PTH analogue (24 months) should then be replaced and continued by anti-resorptive treatment.
(Pol J Endocrinol 2011; 62 (education supplement II): 32–36)
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Keywords

osteoporosis; treatment; parathyroid hormone; teriparatide

About this article
Title

Parathyroid hormone and its analogues — molecular mechanisms of action and efficacy of osteoporosis therapy

Journal

Endokrynologia Polska

Issue

Vol 62, Supp. II (2011)

Pages

32-36

Published online

2011-09-21

Keywords

osteoporosis
treatment
parathyroid hormone
teriparatide

Authors

Waldemar Misiorowski

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