Vol 63, No 1 (2012)
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Published online: 2012-02-29

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Analysis of the impact of environmental and social factors, with a particular emphasis on education, on the level of metabolic control in type 1 diabetes in children

Anna Stefanowicz, Dorota Birkholz, Małgorzata Myśliwiec, Maciej Niedźwiecki, Radosław Owczuk, Anna Balcerska
Endokrynol Pol 2012;63(1):34-41.

Abstract


Background: Type 1 diabetes is a chronic, incurable childhood disease. Chronically uncontrolled diabetes is associated with eye, kidney, nerve, heart and blood vessel damage and function impairment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of various social and environmental factors, with a particular emphasis on education, on the level of metabolic control in diabetes.
Material and methods: The survey research was conducted in 102 children aged 0–18 years, diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Based on the HbA1c level, patients were divided into: group A (63 patients with fairly well and moderately controlled type 1diabetes mellitus) and group B (39 patients with metabolically uncontrolled type 1diabetes mellitus). The impact of various environmental and social factors on the degree of metabolic control of type 1 diabetes was analysed.
Results: No effect of typical environmental and social factors, such as: place of residence, gender, parents’ education and their professional activity, on the level of metabolic control of type 1 diabetes was found. However, groups A and B significantly differed in the level of knowledge about diabetes and its treatment, in the regularity of meals, in possessing a nutrition scale and in the self-assessed preparation for taking care and custody of a child with type 1 diabetes.
Conclusions: 1. Children with type 1 diabetes and their parents require ongoing education about the disease and its treatment. 2. The regularity of meals and the use of a nutrition scale have considerable impact on the level of metabolic control of the disease.

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