Vol 7, No 4 (2022)
Review paper
Published online: 2022-09-08

open access

Page views 3403
Article views/downloads 442
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

Job stress among Iranian firefighters: a systematic review

Sayedeh Somayyeh Mousavipour12, Hojjat Sheikhbardsiri3, Mohamad Golitaleb4, Iman Farahi-Ashtiani2, Kosar Yousefi5, Ali Sahebi5
Disaster Emerg Med J 2022;7(4):239-244.


INTRODUCTION: Firefighters, as the first responders to disasters, are exposed to dangerous and stressful situ­ations and experience high job stress due to the nature of their work, affecting various physical and mental health dimensions. The aim of this study was to assess job stress in Iranian firefighters by systematic review.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: PRISMA guideline was used to conduct the present study. Data resources of SID, Magiran, Scopus, PubMed, ISC, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched. Conference papers and the reference list of retrieved articles were screened to identify additional studies. Literature searches were conducted in both Persian and English without any time limit until the end of 2020.

RESULTS: Initially, 147 studies were identified, and finally 13 eligible studies were systematically reviewed. In this study, 2378 Iranian firefighters were studied. Most of the studies had cross-sectional designs.

CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study showed that most Iranian firefighters are exposed to job stress, influencing other life aspects such as quality of life, job satisfaction, etc. As appropriate interventions can reduce job stress, providing firefighters with adequate training at the beginning of employment and also with in-service training, it is possible to reduce their job stress.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file


  1. Hoseinzadeh E, Faghih MA, Kalte Ho, et al. Evaluation of occupational stress factors in firefighters of tehran in 2011. Jentashapir J Cellular Molecul Biol. ; 2013: 129–136.
  2. Chirico F, Afolabi AA, Ilesanmi OS, et al. Prevalence, risk factors and prevention of burnout syndrome among healthcare workers: An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. J Health Soc Scie. 2021; 6(4): 465–491.
  3. Laureys V, Easton M. Resilience of firefighters exposed to potentially traumatic events: a literature review. Intern J Emergency Serv. 2020; 9(2): 217–232.
  4. Smith T, Hughes K, DeJoy D, et al. Assessment of relationships between work stress, work-family conflict, burnout and firefighter safety behavior outcomes. Safety Science. 2018; 103: 287–292.
  5. Chirico F, Crescenzo P, Sacco A, et al. Prevalence of burnout syndrome among Italian volunteers of the Red Cross: a cross-sectional study. Ind Health. 2021; 59(2): 117–127.
  6. Kazronian S, Zakerian S, Saraji J, et al. Reliability and Validity study of the NIOSH Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ) among Firefighters in Tehran city. Health Safety Work. 2013; 3(3): 25–34.
  7. Straud C, Henderson S, Vega L, et al. Resiliency and posttraumatic stress symptoms in firefighter paramedics: The mediating role of depression, anxiety, and sleep. Traumatology. 2018; 24(2): 140–147.
  8. Carpenter GS, Carpenter TP, Kimbrel NA, et al. Social support, stress, and suicidal ideation in professional firefighters. Am J Health Behav. 2015; 39(2): 191–196.
  9. Kim W, Bae M, Chang SJ, et al. Effect of burnout on post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms among firefighters in korea: data from the firefighter research on enhancement of safety & health (FRESH). J Prev Med Public Health. 2019; 52(6): 345–354.
  10. Lee S-S, Jeong S, Choi Y-S. The effect of stress coping on resilience of firefighters. Biomed Research. 2019; 30(2).
  11. Zegel M, Tran JK, Vujanovic AA. Posttraumatic stress, alcohol use, and alcohol use motives among firefighters: The role of distress tolerance. Psychiatry Res. 2019; 282: 112633.
  12. Ziaei M, Yarmohammadi H, Laybidi MI, et al. Comparison of occupational stress among personnel of firefighting and emergency medical stations of kermanshah (iran) in 2013. World J Med Sci. 2014; 10(3): 362–367.
  13. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA Statement. Open Med. 2009; 3(3): e123–e130.
  14. Downes MJ, Brennan ML, Williams HC, et al. Development of a critical appraisal tool to assess the quality of cross-sectional studies (AXIS). BMJ Open. 2016; 6(12): e011458.
  15. Tufanaru C, Munn Z, Aromataris E, Campbell J, Hopp L. Checklist for Quasi-Experimental Studies (non-randomized experimental studies) Joanna Briggs Institute, 2017.
  16. Schulz KF, Altman DG, Moher D. CONSORT 2010 Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. Trials. 2010; 11: 32.
  17. Hong Q, Fàbregues S, Bartlett G, et al. The mixed methods appraisal tool (MMAT) version 2018 for information professionals and researchers. Edu Inform. 2018; 34(4): 285–291.
  18. Sajjadipour FS. Investigating the relationship between job stress and life satisfaction of firefighters. First International Conference on Culture. Psychopathol Edu. 2018.
  19. Baghianimoghadam M, Hatamzadeh N, Sharifi M, et al. Investigation of job stress and related factors in firefighters in the cities of Ahvaz and Yazd, Iran. Caspian J Health Res. 2015; 1(1): 27–34.
  20. Karimian Zo M, Soliemanian A, Rahimi Pordanjani T. The role of shift work tolerance and job stress as predictions of marital satisfaction among mashhad city firefighters. Occup Med Quarterly J. 2018; 10(2): 1–9.
  21. Nodoushan RJ, Halvani G, Sadri A, et al. A study of the relationship between occupational stress and work accidents in employees of fire department and safety services of Yazd city. J Tolooebehdasht. 2019; 18(3): 69–80.
  22. Darvishi E, Sadeghi F, Saed PK. Evaluation of effective factors on occupational stress in firefighting personnel. 2015; 11(1): 184–192.
  23. Hosseinabadi F, Solati F, Ghanbari HR. Investigating the relationship between job stress and dimensions of burnout in firefighters in Mashhad. International Conference on Interdisciplinary Studies in Management and Engineering Teheran, 2019.
  24. Rahimi MA. Investigating the relationship between job stress and burnout and mental health of firefighters in Tehran. 4th International Conference on New Research in the Field of Educational Sciences and Psychology and Social Studies in Iran Teheran, 2019.
  25. Kazronian S, Zakerian SA, Mortezapour A, et al. Influence of 24-hours shift work system on occupational stress among iranian firefighters. Arch Adv Bioscien. 2019; 10(4): 31–40.
  26. Sepidarkish M, Safiri S, Hosseini SH, et al. Prevalence of occupational stress and its correlates among firefighters, Tehran, Iran, 2013. J Resi Clin Med. 2014; 2(4): 177–182.
  27. Bolghanabadi S, Mousavi Ko, Mahmodi A, et al. The effect of mental workload on stress and Quality of Work Life firefighters. J Sabzevar Univ Med Sci. 2019; 26(5): 547–553.
  28. Yazdi S, Sharifian S. Job stress and its related factors in tehran firefighters in year 2000. Tehran Univ Med J TUMS Publ. 2001; 59(6): 72–78.
  29. Fariborz D. effectiveness of coping therapy on job stress and satisfaction of firefighters satisfaction. J Soc Order. 2012; 4(3): 183–194.
  30. Hatami A, Afshari D. Effect of occupational stress on the work ability of Iranian firefighters. Jundishapur J Health Sci. 2019; 11(1).
  31. Mehrabian F, Kasmaei P, Roushan ZA. The effect of stress management education on firefighters' stress in Rasht. Iran Occup Health J. 2017; 13(6): 78–86.
  32. Talebi N. The effectiveness of aerobic exercise interventions and stress coping skills training on the reduction of job stress among employees of the organization. Clin Psychol Personal. 2020; 17(2): 11–18.
  33. Rajabi F, Molaeifar H, Jahangiri M, et al. Occupational stressors among firefighters: application of multi-criteria decision making (MCDM)Techniques. Heliyon. 2020; 6(4): e03820.
  34. Mohamadi A, Nourollahi M, Latifi SM. The effect of risk factors of occupational stress on general health of the firefighters of Ahvaz city. Jundishapur J Health Sci. 2013; 5(3): 167–173.
  35. Khodabakhshi KA, Falsafinejad MR, Moghadam M. Effectiveness of stress management training on life quality and occupational burnout among firefighters of Tehran. J Health Chime. 2018; 6(1): #a0042.
  36. Kim YK, Ahn YS, Kim K, et al. Association between job stress and occupational injuries among Korean firefighters: a nationwide cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2016; 6(11): e012002.
  37. Sahebi A, Yousefi K, Moayedi S, et al. Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder among firefighters in iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Iran J Psychiatry. 2020; 15(4): 358–365.
  38. Golitaleb M, Mozafari A, Yousefi K, et al. Post-traumatic stress disorder in emergency medical services personnel in iran: a letter to the editor. Iranian J Psychiatry Behavioral Sci. 2020; 14(1).
  39. Jung Y, Oh M, Kim H. The relationship between occupational stress and burnout among firefighters: mediating of grit. J Korean Academy Psychiatric Mental Health Nurs. 2020; 29(2): 96–105.
  40. Klimley K, Hasselt VV, Stripling A. Posttraumatic stress disorder in police, firefighters, and emergency dispatchers. Aggression Violent Behavior. 2018; 43: 33–44.
  41. Yun YJ, Hong SW. Effects of job stress and burnout on the quality of life among 119 EMTs. The Korean Journal of Emergency Medical Services. 2018; 22(3): 131–148.
  42. Namdari M, Sharifi T, Tabatabee SS. The effect of job stress on the quality of life of emergency personnel. J Management Medical Inform School. 2014; 2(1): 37–127.
  43. Huang Qi, An Y, Li X. Coping strategies as mediators in the relation between perceived social support and job burnout among Chinese firefighters. J Health Psychol. 2022; 27(2): 363–373.
  44. Chirico F. Spirituality to cope with COVID-19 pandemic, climate change and future global challenges. J Health Social Sci. 2021; 6(2): 151–158.
  45. Lee JH, Park S, Sim M. Relationship between ways of coping and posttraumatic stress symptoms in firefighters compared to the general population in South Korea. Psychiatry Res. 2018; 270: 649–655.
  46. Baek ML, Kim YR. Effect of music listening on convergent job stress of fire-fighter. J Korea Convergence Soc. 2016; 7(6): 99–104.
  47. Lan YL, Huang WT, Kao CL, et al. The relationship between organizational climate, job stress, workplace burnout, and retention of pharmacists. J Occup Health. 2020; 62(1): e12079.

Disaster and Emergency Medicine Journal