Vol 7, No 1 (2022)
Case report
Published online: 2022-03-18

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Severe hypertriglyceridemia in the course of ketoacidosis in a patient with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus

Eliza Skala-Zamorowska1, Halla Kaminska12, Wladyslaw Gawel32, Lukasz Szarpak42, Wojciech Mlynarski5, Przemyslawa Jarosz-Chobot1
Disaster Emerg Med J 2022;7(1):58-62.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: One of the most serious complications in delayed diagnosis of DKA is hypertriglyceridemia (HTG), Prevalence of mild hypertriglyceridemia is found in about 50% of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Prevalence of severe hypertriglyceridemia [TG > 22.4 mmol/L (> 1959 mg/dL)] was found in about 1–8% of adults with DKA, but few data have been reported in children with severity ranging from asymptomatic to severe acute pancreatitis.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 2-year-old-girl with a 2 weeks history of generalized weakness, polydipsia, polyuria, and vulvar candidiasis was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit with clinical signs of DKA. Our patient was met the diagnostic criteria for DKA (pH 7.1, HCO3- 8.8 mmol/L, BE -21.1 mmol/L), glucose level of > 22 mmol/L (556 mg/dl). Initial biochemical analysis showed hyperlipidemia [TG 11470 mg/dL (131.1 mmol/L)], amylase 28 U/L. Her blood demonstrated a grossly lipemic appearance and her lipemic condition disturbed the results of other biochemical blood investigations. The objective of this case report is to present and describe the clinical features, laboratory investigations, case management, and natural course of hypertriglyceridemia in a 2-year-old girl with DKA.
CONCLUSIONS: Lipemia secondary to severe HTG may exist in new-onset T1DM with DKA. Diabetic lipemia can be caused not only by profound insulin deficiency. An additional factor which should be taken into consideration in very young children is breastfeeding, which is associated with increased mean total cholesterol (TC) and LDL levels. Moreover, severe hypertriglyceridemia may result in mutations of genes encoding lipoprotein lipase (LPL).

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