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Vol 2, No 1 (2017)
REVIEW ARTICLE
Published online: 2017-03-31
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RSII rapid-sequence induction of anaesthesia and intubation of the trachea

Bogumila Woloszczuk-Gebicka
DOI: 10.5603/DEMJ.2017.0006
·
Pubmed: 10610278
·
Disaster Emerg Med J 2017;2(1):33-38.

open access

Vol 2, No 1 (2017)
REVIEW ARTICLE
Published online: 2017-03-31

Abstract

Rapid sequence induction and intubation (RSII) is the preferred method of tracheal intubation in emergen­cy situations for patients presenting with a full stomach. The aim of RSII is to intubate the trachea within 60 seconds, without having to use bag-valve-mask ventilation to avoid air insufflation into the stomach. After preoxygenation and while cricoid pressure is applied, an induction dose of intravenous anaesthetic agent is administered and rapidly followed by a fast-acting muscle relaxant, and after 60 seconds tracheal intubation is performed.

Preoxygention increases apnoea tolerance. This is particularly important for infants and young children, and in patients who are in critical condition, obese or pregnant. Cricoid pressure (the Sellick manouver) is recommended to prevent regurgitation of the gastric contents to the throat.

Propofol or thiopental are routinely used for induction. Ketamine or etomidate may be used if propofol or thiopental administration is contraindicated. Succinylcholine or rocuronium are used to facilitate tracheal intubation. Poor jaw relaxation, patient resistance to a laryngoscope, closed or closing vocal cords, vigorous limb movements or sustained coughing after tube insertion are not clinically acceptable.

Modified rapid sequence induction, used in patients at risk of rapid development of hypoxaemia, allows gentle positive pressure ventilation after administration of the induction agent and muscle relaxant, but before the tracheal intubation.

If the attempt of intubation fails, sugammadex, 16 mg/kg body weight is recommended for the immediate reversal of the neuromuscular block produced by rocuronium, but not for other muscle relaxants.

Abstract

Rapid sequence induction and intubation (RSII) is the preferred method of tracheal intubation in emergen­cy situations for patients presenting with a full stomach. The aim of RSII is to intubate the trachea within 60 seconds, without having to use bag-valve-mask ventilation to avoid air insufflation into the stomach. After preoxygenation and while cricoid pressure is applied, an induction dose of intravenous anaesthetic agent is administered and rapidly followed by a fast-acting muscle relaxant, and after 60 seconds tracheal intubation is performed.

Preoxygention increases apnoea tolerance. This is particularly important for infants and young children, and in patients who are in critical condition, obese or pregnant. Cricoid pressure (the Sellick manouver) is recommended to prevent regurgitation of the gastric contents to the throat.

Propofol or thiopental are routinely used for induction. Ketamine or etomidate may be used if propofol or thiopental administration is contraindicated. Succinylcholine or rocuronium are used to facilitate tracheal intubation. Poor jaw relaxation, patient resistance to a laryngoscope, closed or closing vocal cords, vigorous limb movements or sustained coughing after tube insertion are not clinically acceptable.

Modified rapid sequence induction, used in patients at risk of rapid development of hypoxaemia, allows gentle positive pressure ventilation after administration of the induction agent and muscle relaxant, but before the tracheal intubation.

If the attempt of intubation fails, sugammadex, 16 mg/kg body weight is recommended for the immediate reversal of the neuromuscular block produced by rocuronium, but not for other muscle relaxants.

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Keywords

intubation endotracheal, intubation methods, muscle relaxants depolarizing, muscle relaxants non-depolarizing, cyclodextrines

About this article
Title

RSII rapid-sequence induction of anaesthesia and intubation of the trachea

Journal

Disaster and Emergency Medicine Journal

Issue

Vol 2, No 1 (2017)

Pages

33-38

Published online

2017-03-31

DOI

10.5603/DEMJ.2017.0006

Pubmed

10610278

Bibliographic record

Disaster Emerg Med J 2017;2(1):33-38.

Keywords

intubation endotracheal
intubation methods
muscle relaxants depolarizing
muscle relaxants non-depolarizing
cyclodextrines

Authors

Bogumila Woloszczuk-Gebicka

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