open access

Vol 6, No 5 (2017)
Review
Published online: 2017-12-28
Get Citation

Diagnosis and treatment of diabetic retinopathy — historical overview

Wojciech Matuszewski, Elżbieta Bandurska-Stankiewicz, Robert Modzelewski, Urszula Kamińska, Magdalena Stefanowicz-Rutkowska
DOI: 10.5603/DK.2017.0030
·
Clinical Diabetology 2017;6(5):182-188.

open access

Vol 6, No 5 (2017)
Review
Published online: 2017-12-28

Abstract

Before the discovery of insulin, diabetes had been a fatal disease. Insulin extended lifespan of diabetic patients, yet it also gave rise to a number of chronic vascular complications, including diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmic lesions were first observed in 1798 by John Rollo. Precise assessment of the eye fundus became possible following the construction of ophthalmoscope, which later made it possible to propose a classification of diabetic eye disease. The history of diabetic retinopathy encompasses not only the discovery of diagnostic methods such as fluorescein angiography, ultrasound examination or optical coherence tomography, but also the history of its treatment. Both initially as well as at present, clinical nutrition constitutes the most important aspect of treatment. DCCT and UKPDS have shown that good metabolic balance plays a significant role in preventing and treating DR. Further studies proved that pharmacological treatment based on fibrates and angiotensin-convertingenzyme inhibitors. A turning point in the history of DR treatment appeared when laser photocoagulation was introduced in 1959. The discovery of epidermal growth factor in 1982 led to the use of anti-VEGF medications in treating maculopathy. Surgical treatment of DR primarily consisted of vitrectomy whose procedures are continually improved.

Abstract

Before the discovery of insulin, diabetes had been a fatal disease. Insulin extended lifespan of diabetic patients, yet it also gave rise to a number of chronic vascular complications, including diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmic lesions were first observed in 1798 by John Rollo. Precise assessment of the eye fundus became possible following the construction of ophthalmoscope, which later made it possible to propose a classification of diabetic eye disease. The history of diabetic retinopathy encompasses not only the discovery of diagnostic methods such as fluorescein angiography, ultrasound examination or optical coherence tomography, but also the history of its treatment. Both initially as well as at present, clinical nutrition constitutes the most important aspect of treatment. DCCT and UKPDS have shown that good metabolic balance plays a significant role in preventing and treating DR. Further studies proved that pharmacological treatment based on fibrates and angiotensin-convertingenzyme inhibitors. A turning point in the history of DR treatment appeared when laser photocoagulation was introduced in 1959. The discovery of epidermal growth factor in 1982 led to the use of anti-VEGF medications in treating maculopathy. Surgical treatment of DR primarily consisted of vitrectomy whose procedures are continually improved.
Get Citation

Keywords

diabetes; complication; diabetic retinopathy

About this article
Title

Diagnosis and treatment of diabetic retinopathy — historical overview

Journal

Clinical Diabetology

Issue

Vol 6, No 5 (2017)

Pages

182-188

Published online

2017-12-28

DOI

10.5603/DK.2017.0030

Bibliographic record

Clinical Diabetology 2017;6(5):182-188.

Keywords

diabetes
complication
diabetic retinopathy

Authors

Wojciech Matuszewski
Elżbieta Bandurska-Stankiewicz
Robert Modzelewski
Urszula Kamińska
Magdalena Stefanowicz-Rutkowska

References (101)
  1. Henschen F. On the term diabetes in the works of Aretaeus and Galen. Med Hist. 1969; 13(2): 190–192.
  2. Bąk M. Kamienie milowe w historii cukrzycy. ITEM Publishng. Wyd. I., Warszawa 2015–16.
  3. Rollo J, ruickshank W. An account of two cases of the diabetes mellitus, with remarks as they arose during the progress of the cure. Wyd C Dilly 1797: London.
  4. Mering J, Minkowski O. Diabetes mellitus nach Pankreasexstirpation. Arch Exper Path Pharm. 1890; 26(5-6): 371–387.
  5. Bliss M. Chwały wystarczy dla wszystkich.Historia odkrycia insuliny. PTBPC, Łódź 2003.
  6. Banting FG, Best CH, Collip B, et al. Pancreatic extracts in the treatment of diabetes mellitus: preliminary report. Can Med Assoc J. 1922; 12: 141–146.
  7. Marble A. Insulin--clinical aspects: the first fifty years. Diabetes. 1972; 21(2 Suppl): 632–636.
  8. Grenfell A. History of diabetic complications. (w): Mogensen C.E., Standl E. (red.) Prevention and treatment of diabetic late complications. Tom 2. de Grutyrer W. Berlin, New York. ; 1989: 1–4.
  9. Jaeger E. Retinitis diabetica. Beitrage zur Pathologie des Auges. Wien. ; 1855: 33.
  10. Von Graefe A. Ueber die mit diabetes mellitus vorkommenden Sehstφrungen. Dies Arch. 1858; IV: 230–234.
  11. Noyes HD. Retinitis in glycosuria. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1869; 4: 71–75.
  12. Nettleship E. On oedema or cystic disease of the retina. Roy. Lond.Hosp. Rep. 1872; VII: 343–351.
  13. Manz W. Retinitis proliferans. Albrecht von Græfe's Archiv für Ophthalmologie. 1876; 22(3): 229–275.
  14. Poulsen JE. Features of the history of diabetology. Munskgaard, Kopenhaga. ; 1982: 119–124.
  15. Hirschberg J. άber diabetische Netzhautentzòndung. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 1890; 13: 1181.
  16. Ballantyne AJ, Lowenstein A. Pathology of diabetic retinopathy. Trans Opthal Soc UK. 1944; 63: 95.
  17. Lundbeak K. Diabetic angiopathy. A specific vascular disease. Lancet. 1954; 1: 377.
  18. The Royal College of Ophthalmologist.Diabetic retinopahy Guidelines December 2012.
  19. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Preferred Practice Pattern. October 2012.
  20. International Council of Ophthalmology.ICO Guidelines for Diabetic Eye Care February 2014.
  21. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Podsumowanie założeń dla zalecanych algorytmów postępowania w praktyce klinicznej, tłum. Kudasiewicz-Kardaszewska A.Zagórski Z October 2012.
  22. Greenfield DS, Heggerick PA, Hedges TR. Color Doppler imaging of normal orbital vasculature. Ophthalmology. 1995; 120(11): 1598–1605.
  23. Cusumano A, Coleman DJ, Silverman RH, et al. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging. Clinical applications. Ophthalmology. 1998; 105(2): 300–306.
  24. Downey DB, Nicolle DA, Levin MF, et al. 3-D Ultrasound Imaging of the Eye. Eye. 1996; 10: 75–81.
  25. Kasprzak J, Kecik D, Kęcik T, et al. Metody skaningu optycznego w badaniach dna oczu. Nowa Okulistyka. 1998; 1: 7–11.
  26. Huang D, Swanson E, Lin C, et al. Optical coherence tomography. Science. 1991; 254(5035): 1178–1181.
  27. Kino GS. Intermediate optics in Nipkow disk microscopes. Handbook of biological confocal microscopy. Ed. Pawley J.B., Rev. ed. New York: Plenum Press 1990: 105–111.
  28. Masters BR, Thaer AA. In vivo human corneal confocal microscopy of identical fields of subepithelial nerve plexus, basal epithelial, and wing cells at different times. Microsc Res Tech. 1994; 29(5): 350–356.
  29. Maurice DM. A scanning slit optical microscope. Invest Ophthalmol. 1974; 13(12): 1033–1037.
  30. Petroll WM, Cavanagh HD, Jester JV. Confocal microscopy. In: Krachmer JH, Mannis MJ, Holland EJ. ed. Cornea. Mosby Vol 1, St. Louis 1997: 335–350.
  31. Kristinsson J, Stefánsson E, Jónasson F, et al. Screening for eye disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Acta Ophthalmologica. 2009; 72(3): 341–346.
  32. Stefánsson E, Bek T, Porta M, et al. Screening and prevention of diabetic blindness. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2000; 78(4): 374–385.
  33. Lau HC, Voo YO, Yeo KT, et al. Mass screening for diabetic retinopathy--a report on diabetic retinal screening in primary care clinics in Singapore. Singapore Med J. 1995; 36(5): 510–513.
  34. Pieczynski J, Grzybowski A. Review of Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Methods and Programmes Adopted in Different Parts of the World. European Ophthalmic Review. 2015; 09(01): 49.
  35. POULSEN JE. Recovery from retinopathy in a case of diabetes with Simmonds' disease. Diabetes. 1953; 2(1): 7–12.
  36. Leite EB, Mota MC, de Abreu JR, et al. Effect of calcium dobesilate on the blood-retinal barrier in early diabetic retinopathy. Int Ophthalmol. 1990; 14(2): 81–88.
  37. Renier G, Mamputu JC, Desfaits AC, et al. Monocyte adhesion in diabetic angiopathy: effects of free-radical scavenging. J Diabetes Complications. 2003; 17(2 Suppl): 20–29.
  38. Sun W, Gerhardinger C, Dagher Z, et al. Aspirin at low-intermediate concentrations protects retinal vessels in experimental diabetic retinopathy through non-platelet-mediated effects. Diabetes. 2005; 54(12): 3418–3426.
  39. Szaflik J, Kamińska A. Przydatność Vessel Due F (sulodeksydu) w leczeniu pacjentów z retinopatią cukrzycową, zwyrodnieniem plamki związanym z wiekiem oraz w zakrzepicy żył siatkówki. Okulistyka. 2000; 3: 49–51.
  40. Otani A, Takagi H, Oh H, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor family and receptor expression in human choroidal neovascular membranes. Microvasc Res. 2002; 64(1): 162–169.
  41. Polskie Towarzystwo Diabetologiczne. Zalecenia kliniczne dotyczące postępowania u chorych na cukrzycę 2016. Stanowisko Polskiego Towarzystwa Diabetologicznego. Diabetologia Kliniczna. 2016. ; 5(suppl. A).
  42. Nathan DM, Genuth S, Lachin J, et al. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1993; 329(14): 977–986.
  43. UKPDS Group. Intensive blood-glucose...in patients with type 2 diabetes. Lancet. 1998; 352(9131): 837–853.
  44. Klein R. The Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. Archives of Ophthalmology. 1984; 102(4): 527.
  45. Ohkubo Y, Kishikawa H, Araki E, et al. Intensive insulin therapy prevents the progression of diabetic microvascular complications in Japanese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a randomized prospective 6-year study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1995; 28(2): 103–117.
  46. Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Follow-On (ACCORDION) Eye Study Group and the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Follow-On (ACCORDION) Study Group. Persistent Effects of Intensive Glycemic Control on Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) Follow-On Study. Diabetes Care.Diabetes Care. 2016 Jul;39(7):1089-100 2016.
  47. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Raport, Number22:association of abstract serum lipid levels with retinal hard exudate in diabetic retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1987; 94: 1614–1620.
  48. Klein B, Moss S, Klein R, et al. The Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. Ophthalmology. 1991; 98(8): 1261–1265.
  49. Gordon B, Chang S, Kavanagh M, et al. The effects of lipid lowering on diabetic retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1991; 112(4): 385–391.
  50. Keech A, Simes RJ, Barter P, et al. FIELD study investigators. Effects of long-term fenofibrate therapy on cardiovascular events in 9795 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (the FIELD study): randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2005; 366(9500): 1849–1861.
  51. Endo A, Hasumi K, Negishi S. Monacolins J and L, new inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis produced by Monascus ruber. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 1985; 38(3): 420–422.
  52. Endo A, Kuroda M, Tsujita Y. ML-236A, ML-236B, and ML-236C, new inhibitors of cholesterogenesis produced by Penicillium citrinium. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 1976; 29(12): 1346–1348.
  53. Graaf MR, Richel DJ, van Noorden CJF, et al. Effects of statins and farnesyltransferase inhibitors on the development and progression of cancer. Cancer Treat Rev. 2004; 30(7): 609–641.
  54. Moghadasian MH. Clinical pharmacology of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. Life Sci. 1999; 65(13): 1329–1337.
  55. Cusick M, Chew EY, Chan CC, et al. Histopathology and regression of retinal hard exudates in diabetic retinopathy after reduction of elevated serum lipid levels. Ophthalmology. 2003; 110(11): 2126–2133.
  56. Tigerstedt R, Bergman PG. Niere und Kreislauf. Skand. Arch. Physiol. 1898; 8: 223–271.
  57. Page IH, Helmer OM. A CRYSTALLINE PRESSOR SUBSTANCE (ANGIOTONIN) RESULTING FROM THE REACTION BETWEEN RENIN AND RENIN-ACTIVATOR. J Exp Med. 1940; 71(1): 29–42.
  58. SKEGGS LT, KAHN JR, SHUMWAY NP. The preparation and function of the hypertensin-converting enzyme. J Exp Med. 1956; 103(3): 295–299.
  59. Ondetti MA, Williams NJ, Sabo EF, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from the venom of Bothrops jararaca. Isolation, elucidation of structure, and synthesis. Biochemistry. 1971; 10(22): 4033–4039.
  60. Ondetti MA, Rubin B, Cushman DW. Design of specific inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme: new class of orally active antihypertensive agents. Science. 1977; 196(4288): 441–444.
  61. Chaturvedi N. Randomised placebo-controlled trial of lisinopril in normotensive patients with insulin-dependent diabetes and normoalbuminuria or microalbuminuria. The Lancet. 1997; 349(9068): 1787–1792.
  62. Harindhanavudhi T, Mauer M, Klein R, et al. Renin Angiotensin System Study (RASS) group. Renal and retinal effects of enalapril and losartan in type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361(1): 40–51.
  63. Martidis A, Duker J, Greenberg P, et al. Intravitreal triamcinolone for refractory diabetic macular edema. Ophthalmology. 2002; 109(5): 920–927.
  64. Dugel PU, Bandello F, Loewenstein A. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant in the treatment of diabetic macular edema. Clin Ophthalmol. 2015; 9: 1321–1335.
  65. Boyer DS, Faber D, Gupta S, et al. Ozurdex CHAMPLAIN Study Group. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant for treatment of diabetic macular edema in vitrectomized patients. Retina. 2011; 31(5): 915–923.
  66. Shweiki D, Itin A, Soffer D, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor induced by hypoxia may mediate hypoxia-initiated angiogenesis. Nature. 1992; 359(6398): 843–845.
  67. Itakura H, Kishi S, Kotajima N, et al. Persistent secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor into the vitreous cavity in proliferative diabetic retinopathy after vitrectomy. Ophthalmology. 2004; 111(10): 1880–1884.
  68. Massin P, Bandello F, Garweg JG. Safety and Efficacy of Ranibizumab in Diabetic Macular Edema (RESOLVE Study). Diabetes Care. 2010; 33: 2399–2405.
  69. Kubicka-Trząska A. Skuteczna terapia nadal poszukiwana. Nowe perspektywy leczenia wysiękowej postaci zwyrodnienia plamki związanego z wiekiem. Przegląd okulistyczny. 2005; 1: 10.
  70. Sfikakis PP, Grigoropoulos V, Emfietzoglou I, et al. Infliximab for diabetic macular edema refractory to laser photocoagulation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, 32-week study. Diabetes Care. 2010; 33(7): 1523–1528.
  71. Kuppermann BD, Thomas EL, de Smet MD, et al. Vitrase for Vitreous Hemorrhage Study Groups. Pooled efficacy results from two multinational randomized controlled clinical trials of a single intravitreous injection of highly purified ovine hyaluronidase (Vitrase) for the management of vitreous hemorrhage. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005; 140(4): 573–584.
  72. Frank RN. Potential new medical therapies for diabetic retinopathy: protein kinase C inhibitors. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002; 133(5): 693–698.
  73. Lang GE. Treatment of diabetic retinopathy with protein kinase C subtype Beta inhibitor. Dev Ophthalmol. 2007; 39: 157–165.
  74. Pesch KJ, Meyer-Schwickerath G, MEYER-SCHWICKERATH G. TREATMENT OF VASCULAR DISEASE OF THE RETINA WITH LIGHT COAGULATION. Trans Can Opthalmolog Soc. 1963; 26(6): 137–147.
  75. Wetzig PC, Worlton JT, WETZIG PC, et al. TREATMENT OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY BY LIGHT-COAGULATION: A PRELIMINARY STUDY. Br J Ophthalmol. 1963; 47: 539–541.
  76. Wolfensberger TJ, Hamilton AM. Diabetic retinopathy--an historical review. Semin Ophthalmol. 2001; 16(1): 2–7.
  77. Patz A, Schatz H, Berkow JW, et al. Macular edema--an overlooked complication of diabetic retinopathy. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1973; 77(1): OP34–OP42.
  78. Four risk factors for severe visual loss in diabetic retinopathy. The third report from the Diabetic Retinopathy Study. The Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group. Arch Ophthalmol. 1979; 97(4): 654–655.
  79. Focal photocoagulation treatment of diabetic macular edema. Relationship of treatment effect to fluorescein angiographic and other retinal characteristics at baseline: ETDRS report no. 19. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995; 113(9): 1144–1155.
  80. Macherer R, Buettner H, Norton WE, et al. Vitrectomy: a pars plana approach. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1971; 75: 813–820.
  81. Kański J. Okulistyka kliniczna. Elsevier Urban&Partner, Wrocław 2009: 359–393.
  82. Gelvin JB, Thonn VA. The formation and reversal of acute cataracts in diabetes mellitus. J Am Optom Assoc. 1993; 64(7): 471–474.
  83. Datlies MB, Kinoshita IM. Pathogenesis of cataracts. Clinical ophthalmology. (w:) Duane`s clinical ophthalmology Tasman W. , Jaeger E A (red) Lippincott Filadelfia. ; 1992: 1–14.
  84. Melanowski WH. Dzieje Okulistyki. Państwowy Zakład Wydawnictw Lekarskich, 1-24, 134-142, Warszawa 1972.
  85. Musiał G. Historia operacji zaćmy. Klin Oczna. 1983; 85: 325-327, 371-373, 439-441.
  86. Kałużny J. Soczewka i zaćma.(Seria: Basic and Clinical Science Course, część 11). Elsevier Urban & Partner, Wrocław 2007: 21-76, 93-120.
  87. Musiał G. Historia operacji zaćmy. Klin Oczna. 1983; 85: 325-327, 371-373, 439-441.
  88. Apple DJ. Sir Harold Ridley and his fight for sight. Slack, Thorofare 2006: 128–148.
  89. Alió J, Rodriguez-Prats JL, Galal A. Advances in microincision cataract surgery intraocular lenses. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2006; 17(1): 80–93.
  90. Bellucci R. Multifocal intraocular lenses. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2005; 16(1): 33–37.
  91. Yang J, Wang X, Zhang H, et al. Clinical evaluation of surgery-induced astigmatism in cataract surgery using 2.2 mm or 1.8 mm clear corneal micro-incisions. Int J Ophthalmol. 2017; 10(1): 68–71.
  92. Barber AJ. A new view of diabetic retinopathy: a neurodegenerative disease of the eye. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2003; 27(2): 283–290.
  93. CUNHA-VAZ J. Neurodegeneration as an early event in the pathogenesis of Diabetic Retinopathy: A multicentric, prospective, phase II-III, randomised controlled trial to assess the efficacy of neuroprotective drugs administered topically to prevent or arrest Diabetic Re. Acta Ophthalmologica. 2012; 90: 0–0.
  94. Santos AR, Ribeiro L, Bandello F, et al. European Consortium for the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy (EUROCONDOR). Functional and Structural Findings of Neurodegeneration in Early Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy: Cross-sectional Analyses of Baseline Data of the EUROCONDOR Project. Diabetes. 2017; 66(9): 2503–2510.
  95. Cunha-Vaz J, Ribeiro L, Lobo C. Phenotypes and biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2014; 41: 90–111.
  96. Arroba AI, Mazzeo A, Cazzoni D, et al. Somatostatin protects photoreceptor cells against high glucose-induced apoptosis. Mol Vis. 2016; 22: 1522–1531.
  97. Chou JC, Rollins SD, Ye M, et al. Endothelin receptor-A antagonist attenuates retinal vascular and neuroretinal pathology in diabetic mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014; 55(4): 2516–2525.
  98. Acunman K, Kolibabka M, Dietrich N, et al. Lixisenatide protects the neurovasular unit in diabetic retinopathy. Lisbon EASD 2017. Session: Novel treatments of retinopathy; Poster. ; 1045.
  99. Hernández C, Bogdanov P, Solà-Adell C, et al. Topical administration of DPP-IV inhibitors prevents retinal neurodegeneration in experimental diabetes. Diabetologia. 2017; 60(11): 2285–2298.
  100. Li P, Xu X, Zheng Z, et al. Protective effects of rosiglitazone on retinal neuronal damage in diabetic rats. Curr Eye Res. 2011; 36(7): 673–679.
  101. Bogdanov P, Hernández C, Corraliza L, et al. Effect of fenofibrate on retinal neurodegeneration in an experimental model of type 2 diabetes. Acta Diabetol. 2015; 52(1): 113–122.

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

Czasopismo Diabetologia Kliniczna dostęne jest również w Ikamed - księgarnia medyczna

Wydawcą serwisu jest  "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., ul. Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl