Author Guidelines

Article Information and Declarations

Article Information and Declarations

These specific elements should be provided in dedicated sections of the submission panel; they are available according to the type of article. Please, do not include these elements in the main text. More information on particular items is provided in the Author Guidelines panel.


If applicable, please provide any acknowledgments for the conduct of the study and/or support for manuscript preparation. 

Author contributions

Please, describe the contribution of all co-authors to the final manuscript.


Please, highlight any funding that you may have received for the reported research or state that no funding, grants, or other support was received.

Availability of data and materials

Please, indicate that original contributions presented in the study are included in the article (and as Supplementary Material, if applicable) and that further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding author.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Please, if applicable state that the study was reviewed and approved by an Ethics Committee and that patients/participants provided their written informed consent to participate in this study. If not applicable, please explain why ethical approval and/or consent were not required.

Competing interests

The Journal requires that any possible conflicts of interest regarding the submitted article should be described for each author, or authors should declare they have no conflict of interest related to the submitted manuscript. Potential sources of conflict of interest include, but are not limited to: affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest (such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers’ bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; and expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements), or non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, knowledge or beliefs) in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript. The existence of a conflict of interest does not prevent publication. It is responsibility of the corresponding author to review this policy with all authors and collectively disclose with the submission all relevant business relationships and any others that might be pertinent.

Supplementary Material

If applicable: the Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: (link will be provided by an Editor).

Dedicated sections in submission panel related to

Item type

Guidelines / position paper

Original article

Research letter/brief communication


Case report

Study protocol

Clinical vignette


Technology note













Author contributions











Competing interests











Data availability statement











Ethics statement






















Supplementary material











Table I. Elements of

according to submission type
Before You Begin

1. Why should you publish in Clinical Diabetology?

Clinical Diabetology (CD, Journal) is a platform for the exchange of ideas in the field of clinical diabetes. We are interested in a wide range of original clinical research papers, review articles, letters, guideline updates, and editorials in the field of diabetes and related health subject areas. CD is a gold open access journal, accessible to everyone at no cost. Benefits of open access include greater visibility of your research, more downloads, and more potential for collaborative science.

  • There is no cost to authors for publication of their research articles.
  • Rapid first round of editorial review within a week.
  • First round of external reviews in less than 4 weeks.

CD is currently indexed at:

Biochemistry & Biophysics Citation Index,Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), CrossRef,  DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals), EBSCO, EMBASE, ESCI (Emerging Sources Citation Index, Web of Science Core Collection), Free Medical Journals, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Polish Ministry of Education and Science, Polish Medical Library (GBL), Polish Scientific Bibliography, Scopus, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, and WorldCat.

2. Is your article right for Clinical Diabetology?

Clinical Diabetology is interested in publishing a wide range of articles such as original clinical research, clinical care, case reports, diabetes care related health policies and practices from across the world. Research papers that are not suitable for Clinical Diabetology are basic science research (animal preclinical research) or opinions that merely reflect personal views.

3. Permissions

Material taken from another source must be accompanied by a written statement from both author and publisher giving permission to Clinical Diabetology for reproduction. Permission in writing is required from at least one author of papers still in press, unpublished data, and personal communications.

4. Cover Letter

Cover Letter should accompany all submissions directed to CD Journal. Address the Editor formally by name and also include your contact information, despite that it will be available through the Journal’s online submission system. The essence of Cover Letter in to explain why your manuscript would be a good fit for the Journal. The Cover Letter Form is available here.

To facilitate the transfer of knowledge between authors and readers, the CD Journal Editorial Team respectfully asks authors to adhere to the submission, formatting, and editorial policies regarding the preparation of articles.

How to determine my article type?


Formatting requirements

General information

Research papers

(Original research including clinical trial, intervention study, epidemiology study, case-control study, observational research, or survey study)

Max word count: 3,000 (excluding references, captions, and tables)

a)   Title (max 160 characters)

b)   Structured Abstract (max 250 words)

c)   Keywords (4-8)

d)  Introduction

e)   Materials and Methods

f)    Results

g)   Discussion

h)   Conclusions

i)     Article Information and Declarations

j)     References <40

k)   Tables

l)     Figures

m)  Total tables/figures ≤4

Clinical Diabetology accepts only clinical or translational human research that is clinically relevant or has clinical implications.

Clinical Diabetology does not accept basic science research.

For clinical trials, authors must follow CONSORT guidelines:

We require registration of all intervention trials in a country specific or international clinical trial registry such as or WHO’ international Clinical Trial Registry Platform. Authors must provide clinical trial registration number at the end of the abstract.  

For observational studies, authors are advised to follow STROBE guidelines:

For genetic association studies, authors are advised to follow STREGA guidelines:

Review articles

(reviews include narrative review, systematic review, meta-analysis, and scooping review)

Max word count: 3,000 (excluding references, captions, and tables)

a)    Title (max 160 characters)

b)   Structured Abstract (250 words)

c)    Keywords (4-8)

d)   Review

e)    Article Information and Declarations 

f)    References <60

g)   Tables

h)   Figures

i)     Total Tables or Figures ≤4

Though reviews are unsolicited, it is advisable to email your pre-submission inquiry for the suitability of your review.

Systematic reviews (rather than scooping or narrative reviews) are preferred.

Meta-analysis and systematic reviews should be registered on PROSPERO , Open Science Framework or similar national/international registries. Registration number should be provided at the end of the abstract.

Meta-analysis and systematic reviews should be reported per PRISMA guidance:


There are 4 types of letters:

1) Comment Letter: should be submitted within 6 weeks of the article’s issue publication. Does not require tables or figures. Authors will be invited to respond to the comment. Responses should be formatted as a letter.

2) Observation Letter: pilot, feasibility, or hypothesis-generating studies are welcome. 1 table or figure is allowed.

3) Case Report: Interesting case, syndrome, teachable moments, or case series are welcome. 1 table or figure is allowed.

4) Clinical Image: Interesting or novel imaging such as radiology finding, or downloads of diabetes devices such as continuous glucose monitoring and automated insulin delivery system are welcome. Please remove any patient identifier. Written permission from the patient must be obtained for appropriate images and should be submitted with the letter.

Max word count: 500 (excluding references and tables/figures)

a)    Title (max 160 characters)

b)   Letter (observation letter should be structured as Introduction/objective, Methods, Results, and Discussion)

c)    Article Information and Declarations

d)   References (up to 5)

e)    1 Table or Figure (if applicable)

The entire letter, including title page and illustrations, should be prepared as one document.

Letter should be double-spaced, 12 or higher font size.

Guidelines or consensus statement

Max word count: 4,000 (excluding references, captions, and tables)

a)     Title

b)    Abstract (

c)     Keywords (4-8)

d)    Introduction

e)     Methods

f)     Recommendations

g)    Conclusion

h)    Clinical Implications/Future Directions (if applicable)

i)      Tables

j)      Illustrations

k)    Article Information and Declarations

l)      References (up to 100)

Clinical Diabetology is open to proposals for papers containing clinical guidelines prepared by medical societies and experts in the field of diabetes.


Commissioned and invited articles or written by the editors of the Clinical Diabetology journal.

Word count: ~ 1000 (excluding references, tables, and illustrations)

a)      Title

b)      Editorial text

c)      Tables (≤ 1 table)

d)     Figure (≤ 1 figure)

e)      References <20

How to format your manuscript?

Below are the detailed instructions on preparation of your manuscript. Authors can use this template (download) that may serve as a guide while preparing their manuscript. It is not necessary for authors to use this template; however, it is essential that authors follow the author instructions (below). Manuscripts that do not follow these specific outlines will be sent back to authors and it will delay the review and publication of research.

A. General instructions

1. Authorship 

Clinical Diabetology journal abides by the rules of responsible and ethical publishing. It is understood that all persons added to the list of authors must have substantially participated in collecting and analyzing the data and/or in preparing the manuscript, and that none of the researchers/clinicians significantly involved in the project have been omitted from the list of authors. It is also assumed that the listed authors have read and approved the manuscript prior to its submission. Authors should refer to ICMJE recommendations for authorship that can be found at:

2. Language

Please write in English (Standard American English). Authors who feel their English-language manuscript may require editing to eliminate grammatical or spelling errors, and to conform to correct scientific English, should use the recognized English language editing services involved in medical writing.

 3. Fonts and Font size 

  • The entire manuscript (including tables/figures) must be submitted as one Word document.
  • The manuscript should be prepared with font size of 12.
  • Manuscript must be spaced at 1.5.
  • Fonts of tables/figures should not be less than 9 and must be clearly readable.
  • Text should be aligned with the left margin.

4. Use of Inclusive Language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunity. Articles should make no assumption about the beliefs of any reader, should contain nothing that might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture, or any other characteristic; and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'his/her' instead of 'he' or 'his', and by making use of neutral job titles (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess').

Clinical Diabetology recommends authors use the language recommended by the joint task force of the American Association of Diabetes Educators and the American Diabetes Association. The complete report of the task force may be accessible at Dickinson JK, Guzman SJ, Maryniuk MD, et al. The Use of Language in Diabetes Care and Education. The Diabetes Educator. 2017; 43(6):551-564. doi:10.1177/0145721717735535.

 Clinical Diabetology strongly recommends against using the word “diabetic”. Instead, use words like “person with diabetes”, “people with diabetes” or “patients with diabetes”.

Authors are also requested to use the word “type 1” or “type 2 diabetes” instead of type 1 diabetes mellitus or type I diabetes or diabetes mellitus. Authors are advised to use scientific words rather than non-scientific/lay words. For example, ‘plasma glucose’ or ‘blood glucose’ instead of ‘blood sugar’.

 5. Abbreviations

Abbreviations that are unavoidable must be defined twice: (1) at their first mention in the Abstract and (2) at their first mention in the remaining part of the article. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article. Abbreviations used in a table/figure must be defined in the footnote. ‘Type 1 diabetes’ and ‘Type 2 diabetes’ should be abbreviated as T1D and T2D, respectively. Specify the type of diabetes such as type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, or monogenic diabetes instead of writing diabetes. Be sparing with abbreviations; only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible.

6. Subdivision/Numbered sections

 Divide your article into clearly defined or authors can number sections or subsections. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

B. Title Page

Organize the title page as follows:

  1. Article title
  2. Short running title
  3. Name(s) of author(s), scientific degrees, and affiliations
  4. Word counts for abstract, manuscript (excluding abstract, acknowledgements, disclosures, and references), and total number of tables and figures.
  5. Name and address of the corresponding author.

The title:

  • Should be no longer than 160 characters including spaces.
  • Articles should be titled so as to give the reader an insight into the content of the text.
  • It should be accurate and concise and should not be misleading.
  • The first letter of the title should be capitalized. For example, “This is the Correct Title”.
  • The title must specify the study type (e.g. randomized trial, cross-sectional study, etc).
  • The title must mention the type of diabetes studied (e.g., Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, monogenic diabetes, etc).

Short running title: it should be less than 70 characters including spaces.

Name of author(s), scientific degrees, and affiliations. Please provider names of authors in order of their contributions. Write First name, middle name or middle initial and last name/surname followed by the highest academic degree (e.g., Viral N Shah, MD). In case of multiple degrees, please mention the highest academic degree. After all authors are listed, provide the affiliation of each author.

Word counts example

 Abstract: 249

Text/ manuscript: 1890 (include only Introduction, Results, Methods, and Discussion)

Tables: 2

Figures: 1

Supplementary file (if any): 1

Name and address of the corresponding author: the Corresponding author is the author taking responsibility for the integrity of the research. Provide a mailing address and email address for the corresponding author.

C. Structured Abstract

  • An Abstract is required for all articles except letters and editorials.
  • The abstract must be structured as Objective, Materials and methods, Results, and Conclusions for research papers and review articles. For guidelines or consensus statement, abstract should be structured as Objective, Methods, and Key Findings/Recommendations.
    • Do not write a long background or introduction in the abstract. Instead, state the objective. Objective should be 1-2 lines of information that provides an overarching objective or aim of the study. An example of the objective is: to evaluate the relationship between mean glucose and HbA1c in people with diabetes.
    • Materials and Methods: Methods should be concise and include study type, patient selection (key inclusion/exclusion), pre-specified primary outcome, and appropriate statistical test.
    • Results: Results should start with a sample of the included population (n) and their key baseline characteristics, followed by data for primary and secondary outcomes.
    • Conclusions: Must be relevant to the findings of the study. Authors are advised not to overstate the conclusions
    • At the end of the abstract, authors must provide trial registration number for intervention studies and meta-analyses/ systematic review registration for meta-analyses or systematic reviews.

D.  Keywords

The abstract or the title should be followed by 4-8 keywords that allow a precise indexing of the paper. The exact name of the clinical entity that is the main topic of the paper must form one of these keywords like the name of a specific clinical entity (e.g. type 2 diabetes), or a syndrome (e.g. metabolic syndrome). Use American spelling and avoid general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid for example ‘and’, ‘of’, or ‘the’).

E. Units

Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions. Use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI. HbA1c should be reported as % (mmol/mmol). Please use the NGSP’s HbA1c converter at: to calculate HbA1c values as both % and mmol/mol.

F. Name of drugs, or devices

Authors are advised to use the non-proprietary name of the drugs or devices instead of branded names (e.g. sitagliptin instead of Januvia) whenever possible. In cases where trade names of devices are essential for scientific reporting, use the trade name once and then use generic names throughout the manuscript. For example, if you have evaluated the efficacy of a branded continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), use the brand name once followed by CGM (abbreviation for continuous glucose monitoring system) for the rest of the manuscript. 

G. Introduction

The Introduction should provide background information and knowledge gap (what was known/unknown before this study) leading to a research question or hypothesis of the current study. Introduction should be concise and pertinent to the presented research question.

H. Materials and Methods

The Materials and Methods section should be organized in the following subsections when applicable. 

  • Study design: please provide details on study design such as randomized control trial, observation study, cross-sectional study, retrospective study, and survey study. For prospective and randomized clinical trial, an illustration of the study design is preferrable.
  • Study population/study participants: Please include study participants/population description such as inclusion/exclusion criteria, and the source of population recruitment.
  • Ethical approval: The authors’ statement regarding ethical approval of their project should also appear in this subsection. A statement on the ethical aspects of every submitted paper should be included. If a paper does not describe any clinical observations of experiments (e.g. Reviews or Letters), the sentence ‘Ethical approval was not necessary for the preparation of this article’ should be placed after the main text of the manuscript. If the paper describes an original discovery, the statement on ethical approval should appear in the methodological part of the manuscript.
  • Data collection/variables: Clearly define how data was collected, define variables, questionnaires, or measurements obtained. It should also contain a precise description of laboratory experiments (where applicable) that are specific enough to allow reproduction. Details of laboratory assays, its reference range and precision should be provided (e.g. HbA1c (normal < 5.7%) was measured using HPLC method with CV of 5%).
  • Statistical analysis: First, provide primary and secondary outcomes followed by sample size calculation and statistical methods used for primary and secondary outcomes.

I. Results

 The Result section should describe the flow of the study population, baseline characteristics followed by reporting of the outcomes in order(e.g. first report primary outcomes followed by secondary, and exploratory outcomes)

J. Discussion

Authors must set out their specific findings in the context of the most recent publications in the field. The Discussion should also identify limitations of the project and whether the findings are generalizable or applicable to a limited population. Authors must discuss the clinical implications of research findings.

K. Conclusions

The Conclusions section should be a brief description of the main findings of the study and its clinical implication and/or future directions.

L. Funding (if applicable)

 Clear and precise identification of any funding source must appear after the main text. When no external source of funding was involved, the sentence ‘This publication was prepared without any external source of funding’ should appear.

M. Author contribution

Each author should provide his or her contribution toward research.  For example, ABC conceived the concept of the study, obtained funding and wrote the first draft of the study. XYZ helped with patient recruitment, CBD analyzed the data. All authors reviewed and edited the manuscript and approved for the submission.

N. Acknowledgements

Acknowledgments (if applicable) should provide any acknowledgement for the conduct of the study and/or support for manuscript preparation.

O. Conflicts of interests

Any possible conflict of interest regarding the submitted paper should be described for each author in a separate paragraph following the main text.

 P. Data Availability Statement

 For original research, authors are encouraged to provide data availability or data sharing statement. A data availability statement informs the reader where the research data associated with a paper is available, and under what conditions the data can be accessed. Authors may also include links (where applicable) to the data set.

 Q. References

 Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct text citation.

 References should appear in chronological order as they appear in the manuscript starting from the Introduction. The references should be listed in as an Arabic number in square brackets (e.g. “Wright et al. [19]…).  The sequence of references [8, 9, 10, 11] is replaced with the interval [8–11]. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list, they should follow the Vancouver style and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links increase the discoverability of research and high-quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. To allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services (i.e., Scopus, CrossRef, and PubMed), please ensure that the data provided in the references is correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year, and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged. A DOI is guaranteed to remain the same so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using a DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath north eastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

For web references, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g. after the reference list) under a different heading if desired or can be included in the reference list.

Data references are encouraged in this journal. Please include underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide for reference management software. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes.

Other software that can be used for reference management: RefWorks (, BibTeX(, ProCite (

Reference style should be based on the readily available texts published in the latest and major journals mainly written in English. Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.

Model of reference to a journal publication:  last name, initial, full paper title, journal full name, year, and volume (number) first and last page.


  • Reference to a journal publication: [1] Paivio A, Jansen B, Becker LJ. Comparisons through the mind's eye. Cognition 1975;37(2):635– 47.
  • Reference to a book: [2] Letheridge S, Cannon CR, editors. Bilingual education: teaching English as a second language. New York: Praeger; 1980.
  • Reference to a chapter in an edited book: [3] Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 3rd ed. New York: MacMillan; 1979 [chapt.4].
  • Reference to a conference (only abstracts 2-page long may serve as references): [4] Douglis F, Ball Th. Tracking and viewing changes on the web. In: Proc. 1996 USENIX technical conference; 1996
  • Data references: [5] Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015.

 R. Tables

 Tables should be prepared using the same text processing software as the rest of the manuscript. Tables should be numbered (in Arabic, e.g. Table 1) according to their order of appearance in the text. Tables should be placed at the end of the manuscript. Each table should have an appropriate title and footnote as applicable.

A few suggestions to authors:

  • Table Title should be on the top of the Table.
  • Use only one decimal whenever possible.
  • Frequency data should be reported as N (%) and continuous data should be reported as mean ± standard deviation or median and IQR depending on data distribution. These data should be reported in one column and not as different columns.
  • Unit for each variable should be provided (e.g. age in years or HbA1c as %).
  • Sample size should be included in the Table.
  • Missing data for any variable should be clarified.
  • Abbreviations used in the Table must be detailed in the footnote.
  • Please clarify presentation of data (e.g. mean, median, SD) and statistical test used for comparing two variables.
  • Do not duplicate data in Table and text or Table and Figures.
  • P-value for baseline characteristics may not be helpful unless it is essential.
  • Do not insert Table in the World file using a clipping tool or image. Table should be created in the Word file using the insert Table function.
  • Font size in the table should be 9 point or higher with 1.5 space.
  • Total number of the table should not exceed the limit (refer to manuscript type, section 3a).
  • In Tables, units should be written in square brackets(e.g. [years], [mL]).
  • Each Table must be referenced in the text [(Tab. 1) or Table 1 shows…].

 Example of Tables.

 Table 1. Baseline Characteristics of the Study Population#


Case (n = 100)

Control (n = 100)

Age [years]

32.5 ± 8.5

31.5 ± 8.2

Sex, F (%)



Diabetes duration [years]

8.6 ± 1.2

8.2 ± 1.4

SBP [mmHg]

128.0 ± 20.0

116.0 ± 18.0

DBP [mmHg]

90.2 ± 14.2

76 ± 10.4


35.8 ± 8.7

42.0 ± 7.6

Data presented as mean ± SD or %. Abbreviations: F; female, SBP; systolic blood pressure, DBP; diastolic blood pressure, HDL-C; high density lipoprotein cholesterol.

Table 2. Effect of Treatment AB on HbA1c in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes#


Group A

Group B

Adjusted mean difference (95% CI)

At baseline

After 3 month

At baseline

After 3 month

HbA1c [%]

9.2 ± 0.8

8.2 ± 1.2

9.2 ± 0.9

9.1 ± 0.8

0.9 (0.7–1.2)

 # The data presented in the above Tables are for demonstration and are not real.

 S. Figures

Graphs, charts, photographs, video, or illustrations are examples of Figures that are acceptable in the Clinical Diabetology. Number all Figures in the order of their citation in the text (e.g. Figure 1).  

Each Figure must be mentioned in the text [(Fig. 1) or Figure 1 shows…].

Figure title should be under the Figure. Keep the tile concise and informative. Naming of the axis (x-axis and y-axis) should be clear and do not use abbreviations in the Figure whenever possible. Figure should not be a duplication of information from the Table. Each Figure must be distinct from the Table and other Figures.

 Figure/illustrations used in the review or editorial should be original whenever possible. If the author wishes to use published images/figures, authors are responsible to obtain written permission from the original creator/publisher of the said images.

 Figure should be included in the main manuscript Word file. In addition, each high-quality figure should also be submitted separately. The high-quality images will be used if your manuscript is accepted for publication.

 Figure Formats

 If your electronic artwork is created in Microsoft Office (Word, PowerPoint, Excel), please supply 'as is' in the native document format. Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):

  • EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
  • TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
  • TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
  • TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations of bitmapped line/halftone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.

Please do not:

  • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited color set
  • Supply files that are too low in resolution
  • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

 Color artwork/illustration - please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution.

T. Supplementary material

Protocol, questionnaires, additional tables/figures, or additional information that is not a part of the main manuscript should be included as supplementary material.

Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please turn off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office, as these will appear in the published version.

Role of Artificial Intelligence in creating content
  • Nonhuman artificial intelligence, language models, machine learning, or similar technologies do not qualify for authorship. If such models or tools are used to create content or assist with manuscript preparation or writing, authors must take responsibility for the integrity of the content, especially that is has been generated without violating copyright law or rules of academic writing, in particular plagiarism-related ones.
  • Authors should report the use of the above tools in the Methods section (if applicable) or in the Acknowledgments. Additionally, relevant note to the editors at the time of submission should be provided.
  • Such reports should include: (i) a description of the content that was created or edited (ii) the name of the language model or tool, version, and extension numbers (iii) manufacturer, and (iv) where relevant, the query or prompt to create or assist with the development of content.
  • Standard tools for checking grammar, spelling, references, etc. should not be reported.

(This policy has been inspired by JAMA’s instructions for authors describing the role of artificial intelligence and machine learning in creating content or assisting with writing or manuscript preparation).


Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work has not been published previously except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors, and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer review process. Editable files (e.g. Word) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.


Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees.

Changes to authorship

Authors should consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of names in the authorship list can be made only before the manuscript has been accepted, and only if approved by the Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers such a request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Submission Checklist

Authors are required to check their submission's compliance with all of the following. Submissions may be returned to authors not adhering to these guidelines:

1. Manuscript File: Required Components and Formatting

1.1 Title page with all required information

1.2 Word count (varying, according to article type)

1.3 Structured abstract, unstructured abstract or none (varying, according to article type)

1.4 Running head

1.5 Keywords

1.6 Table/Figure legends

1.7 References superscript in text, compiled at the end of the paper in the Vancouver style

1.8 Limited number of references

1.9 Text submitted in .doc/.docx or .rtf format

1.10 Text double-spaced, using Times New Roman and font size 12 or other popular

1.11 Manuscript checked for spelling and grammar

1.12 Article type correct 

2. Supporting Files (Attached as Separate Documents)

2.1 Cover letter

2.2 Conflict of Interest Statement

2.3 Written permission for usage of photographs, illustrations, figures, or text from another source

2.4 Figures: TIF, JPG, EPS, CDR format at the standard resolutions, i.e. 300 dpi for photos, 600 dpi for line art

2.5 Each table, figure, photograph, or illustration in a separate file

2.6 Movies submitted as "Suppl data" in .avi, .mov, or .mp4 formats (max. size: 6MB)

3. Revision/Resubmission: Required Components and Formatting

3.1 ‘Track changes’ mode

3.2 Rebuttal letter

Author statement

Cover letter

What happens after submission?
  • Authors will be sent receipt notification of manuscripts and editorial decisions by email.
  • All submitted manuscripts are first reviewed by editorial staff and any manuscript not meeting author guidelines are returned to the authors.
  • Manuscript is reviewed by the one of the senior editors for the scientific quality of the paper. Submissions to Clinical Diabetology have increased substantially and nearly 30% of submitted manuscripts are rejected by the editors.
  • Manuscripts of scientific merits are sent to external reviewers who are experts in the field of the submitted research. Based on the reviewers’ recommendations, the manuscript will either be sent back to authors for appropriate revision before reconsideration or rejected.
  • All manuscripts that are accepted for consideration go through a plagiarism check using sophisticated software. Authors may be asked to provide additional documents, if required, during the plagiarism check. Failure to meet the standards or found to have plagiarism will be rejected.
  • During this entire process, you can check the status of your manuscript via our online manuscript submission system:   check status
  • Authors may appeal the process or reach out to the editorial staff if they have any questions to:

After Revision:

Before you begin submitting your revision, please ensure you have all the revised files ready. Authors must provide point-to-point answers to each reviewers/editors comment. All changes to the manuscript text should be tracked in the revised manuscript file ('Track Changes' mode if using Microsoft Word).

After Acceptance:

Authors will be notified via email of their manuscript acceptance. After acceptance, the manuscript will be edited per the Journal’s requirements. Authors will be emailed a galley proof to make sure all information is correct prior to final publication.


Authors should not disclose the acceptance of the manuscript to anyone other than co-authors until the manuscript appears online.

After the manuscript is published either online or in print, authors are encouraged to publicize their research.

Copyright Notice

Submitting the manuscript together with figures and tables, the Author (Authors) declares (declare) that the submission has not been previously published, nor has been submitted to another journal for consideration (excluding abstracts not exceeding 250 words). Apart from that the Author (Authors) declares (declare) that he (they) transfers (transfer) automatically and free of charge to the Publisher the copyright for publishing and distributing the submitted materials in all existing forms and areas, provided that the materials will be accepted for publication. At the same time the Author (Authors) agrees (agree) that the manuscript will not be published elsewhere and in any other language without prior consent of the copyright holder, which is the Publisher.

Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.