open access

Vol 5, No 3 (2016)
Review articles (submitted)
Published online: 2016-09-06
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miRNA in type 2 diabetes

Nikola Szweda, Łukasz Łaczmański
DOI: 10.5603/DK.2016.0016
·
Clinical Diabetology 2016;5(3):100-106.

open access

Vol 5, No 3 (2016)
Review articles (submitted)
Published online: 2016-09-06

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia, i.e. elevated blood sugar levels, which stems from a defect in production or action of insulin secreted by pancreatic beta cells. Type 2 diabetes, which involves reduced sensitivity of tissues to insulin, is the most common form of diabetes. Over the years knowledge concerning the etiology of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes was extended, which enabled implementation of new methods of treatment and prevention. Unfortunately, a monogenic factor conditioning the emergence of this disease still has not been isolated, hence scientists more often focus on regulators of expression of various metabolic proteins, e.g. miRNA, which are one of the more important factors regulating expression. First reports concerning the role of miRNA in metabolism in animal organisms come from observations of miR-14 mutants in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster). miRNA are single-stranded RNA molecules with a length of approx. 19–150 nucleotides.

A single miRNA molecule can excite expression of several genes, inhibit it, or excite some and inhibit others. MicroRNA regulates the process of insulin secretion, cellular differentiation of beta cells in pancreatic islets and additionally influence glucose and lipid metabolism. All these issues are potential subjects of further research. Expansion of knowledge concerning microRNA and its role in disease processes is a target for devising new therapeutic strategy, and therefore utilization in production of drugs. Most research is currently in its initial phase, but even preliminary results are highly promising.

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia, i.e. elevated blood sugar levels, which stems from a defect in production or action of insulin secreted by pancreatic beta cells. Type 2 diabetes, which involves reduced sensitivity of tissues to insulin, is the most common form of diabetes. Over the years knowledge concerning the etiology of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes was extended, which enabled implementation of new methods of treatment and prevention. Unfortunately, a monogenic factor conditioning the emergence of this disease still has not been isolated, hence scientists more often focus on regulators of expression of various metabolic proteins, e.g. miRNA, which are one of the more important factors regulating expression. First reports concerning the role of miRNA in metabolism in animal organisms come from observations of miR-14 mutants in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster). miRNA are single-stranded RNA molecules with a length of approx. 19–150 nucleotides.

A single miRNA molecule can excite expression of several genes, inhibit it, or excite some and inhibit others. MicroRNA regulates the process of insulin secretion, cellular differentiation of beta cells in pancreatic islets and additionally influence glucose and lipid metabolism. All these issues are potential subjects of further research. Expansion of knowledge concerning microRNA and its role in disease processes is a target for devising new therapeutic strategy, and therefore utilization in production of drugs. Most research is currently in its initial phase, but even preliminary results are highly promising.

Get Citation

Keywords

diabetes, microRNA, treatment, molecular biology

About this article
Title

miRNA in type 2 diabetes

Journal

Clinical Diabetology

Issue

Vol 5, No 3 (2016)

Pages

100-106

Published online

2016-09-06

DOI

10.5603/DK.2016.0016

Bibliographic record

Clinical Diabetology 2016;5(3):100-106.

Keywords

diabetes
microRNA
treatment
molecular biology

Authors

Nikola Szweda
Łukasz Łaczmański

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