open access

Vol 4, No 1 (2015)
Review
Published online: 2015-05-11
Get Citation

Can better hygiene generate an increase of type 1 diabetes frequency?

Liliana Majkowska, Agnieszka Niemiec
DOI: 10.5603/DK.2015.0002
·
Diabetologia Kliniczna 2015;4(1):9-12.

open access

Vol 4, No 1 (2015)
Review
Published online: 2015-05-11

Abstract

Variety of epidemiological studies indicate a steady increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus, especially in industrialized countries, contrasted by a gradual decrease in the incidence of infectious diseases. There is an overall North–South gradient for type 1 diabetes and other immune disorders in North America and Europe, and West–East gradient in Europe. In developed countries lowest type 1 diabetes frequency is reported in the areas with the poorest socio-economic and hygiene conditions. There are several hypotheses that attempt to explain the relationship between lower exposure to transmissible agents, and a higher incidence of cases of allergic or autoimmune diseases (including type 1 diabetes mellitus). These are: the concept of the antigen competition, the phenomenon of bystander suppresion or “polio” hypothesis. According to hygiene hypothesis increased hygiene may contribute to imbalance of the autoimmune system, facilitating autoimmune reactions leading to destruction of islet beta cells and lack of endogenous insulin.

Abstract

Variety of epidemiological studies indicate a steady increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus, especially in industrialized countries, contrasted by a gradual decrease in the incidence of infectious diseases. There is an overall North–South gradient for type 1 diabetes and other immune disorders in North America and Europe, and West–East gradient in Europe. In developed countries lowest type 1 diabetes frequency is reported in the areas with the poorest socio-economic and hygiene conditions. There are several hypotheses that attempt to explain the relationship between lower exposure to transmissible agents, and a higher incidence of cases of allergic or autoimmune diseases (including type 1 diabetes mellitus). These are: the concept of the antigen competition, the phenomenon of bystander suppresion or “polio” hypothesis. According to hygiene hypothesis increased hygiene may contribute to imbalance of the autoimmune system, facilitating autoimmune reactions leading to destruction of islet beta cells and lack of endogenous insulin.

Get Citation

Keywords

type 1 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune disorders, hygiene hypothesis

About this article
Title

Can better hygiene generate an increase of type 1 diabetes frequency?

Journal

Clinical Diabetology

Issue

Vol 4, No 1 (2015)

Pages

9-12

Published online

2015-05-11

DOI

10.5603/DK.2015.0002

Bibliographic record

Diabetologia Kliniczna 2015;4(1):9-12.

Keywords

type 1 diabetes mellitus
autoimmune disorders
hygiene hypothesis

Authors

Liliana Majkowska
Agnieszka Niemiec

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

 

Wydawcą serwisu jest  "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., ul. Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl