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Published online: 2024-03-19

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Self-Care Management and Glycemic Control Among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Bahrain: A Cross-Sectional Study

Basem Abbas Ahmed Al Ubaidi1, Khatoon Jaffar Abdulla2, Noora Ahmed Al Jenaidi2, Hussain Abdulla Ali2, Eman Merza Marhoon2, Hajar Merza Matar3, Hawra Ali Shakeeb4

Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of self-care management on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients within primary care facilities in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Materials and methods: It was a cross-sectional study that enrolled a cohort of 400 individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Data collection included the administration of the Diabetes Mellitus Self-Management Questionnaire (DSMQ). Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS software version 24.0. The Chi-square test was employed to compare optimal scores in relation to diabetes self-care, while the Kruskal-Wallis test was utilized to assess the impact of patients’ activities, as indicated by DSMQ items, on parameters reflecting HbA1c levels. Additionally, the Spearman rank correlation test was applied to examine the association between knowledge of DSMQ items and HbA1c levels. A statistical significance threshold was set at p < 0.05. Results: The study involved participants with a mean age of 55.6 ± 9.3 years (mean ± standard deviation). Notably, there was a significant negative correlation between DSMQ-16 scores and HbA1c levels (p = 0.026). Similarly, a significant negative correlation was observed between dietary control and HbA1c levels (p = 0.017). Among the various socio-demographic variables examined, only the duration of diabetes exhibited a significant association with the overall self-care score for diabetes (p = 0.045). Conclusions: The study underscores the paramount importance of dietary control in attaining favorable glycemic outcomes in individuals with diabetes. It emphasizes the crucial role of healthcare providers in delivering precise and comprehensive dietary guidance
to all diabetes patients.

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