open access

Vol 3, No 1 (2002): Practical Diabetology
Original articles (translated)
Published online: 2001-12-06
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Hormone replacement therapy is associated with better glycemic control in women with type 2 diabetes

Assiamira Ferrara, Andrew J. Karter, Lynn M. Ackerson, Jennifer Y. Liu, Joseph V. Selby
Diabetologia Praktyczna 2002;3(1):57-66.

open access

Vol 3, No 1 (2002): Practical Diabetology
Original articles (translated)
Published online: 2001-12-06

Abstract

OBJECTIVE. In women with diabetes, the changes that accompany menopause may further diminish glycemic control. Little is known about how hormone replacement therapy (HRT) affects glucose metabolism in diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine whether HbA1c levels varied by current HRT among women with type 2 diabetes.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. In a cohort of 15,435 women with type 2 diabetes who were members of a health maintenance organization, HbA1c and HRT were assessed by reviewing records in the health plan’s computerized laboratory and pharmacy systems. Sociodemographic and clinical information were collected by survey.
RESULTS. The mean age was 64.7 years (SD ± 8.7). The study cohort comprised 55% non-Hispanic whites, 14% non-Hispanic blacks, 12% Hispanics, 11% Asians, 4% ”other” ethnic groups, and 4% with missing ethnicity data. Current HRT was observed in 25% of women. HbA1c levels were significantly lower in women currently using HRT than in women not using HRT (age-adjusted mean ± SE: 7.9 ± 0.03 vs. 8.5 ± ± 0.02, respectively, P = 0.0001). No differences in HbA1c level were observed between women using unopposed estrogens and women using opposed estrogens. In a Generalized Estimating Equation model, which took into account patient clustering within physician and adjusted for age, ethnicity, education, obesity, hypoglycemic therapy, diabetes duration, self-monitoring of blood glucose, and exercise, HRT remained significantly and independently associated with decreased HbA1c levels (P = 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS. HRT was independently associated with decreased HbA1c level. Clinical trials will be necessary to understand whether HRT may improve glycemic control in women with diabetes.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE. In women with diabetes, the changes that accompany menopause may further diminish glycemic control. Little is known about how hormone replacement therapy (HRT) affects glucose metabolism in diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine whether HbA1c levels varied by current HRT among women with type 2 diabetes.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. In a cohort of 15,435 women with type 2 diabetes who were members of a health maintenance organization, HbA1c and HRT were assessed by reviewing records in the health plan’s computerized laboratory and pharmacy systems. Sociodemographic and clinical information were collected by survey.
RESULTS. The mean age was 64.7 years (SD ± 8.7). The study cohort comprised 55% non-Hispanic whites, 14% non-Hispanic blacks, 12% Hispanics, 11% Asians, 4% ”other” ethnic groups, and 4% with missing ethnicity data. Current HRT was observed in 25% of women. HbA1c levels were significantly lower in women currently using HRT than in women not using HRT (age-adjusted mean ± SE: 7.9 ± 0.03 vs. 8.5 ± ± 0.02, respectively, P = 0.0001). No differences in HbA1c level were observed between women using unopposed estrogens and women using opposed estrogens. In a Generalized Estimating Equation model, which took into account patient clustering within physician and adjusted for age, ethnicity, education, obesity, hypoglycemic therapy, diabetes duration, self-monitoring of blood glucose, and exercise, HRT remained significantly and independently associated with decreased HbA1c levels (P = 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS. HRT was independently associated with decreased HbA1c level. Clinical trials will be necessary to understand whether HRT may improve glycemic control in women with diabetes.
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Keywords

hormone replacement therapy (HRT); type 2 diabetes HbA1c concentration

About this article
Title

Hormone replacement therapy is associated with better glycemic control in women with type 2 diabetes

Journal

Clinical Diabetology

Issue

Vol 3, No 1 (2002): Practical Diabetology

Pages

57-66

Published online

2001-12-06

Bibliographic record

Diabetologia Praktyczna 2002;3(1):57-66.

Keywords

hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
type 2 diabetes HbA1c concentration

Authors

Assiamira Ferrara
Andrew J. Karter
Lynn M. Ackerson
Jennifer Y. Liu
Joseph V. Selby

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