Risk factors for the onset of gestational diabetes mellitus
INTRODUCTION. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate
intolerance of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. For this partly retrospective study 283 women were selected. Of these 136 were diagnosed with class G1 GDM (treated by diet only). The remaining 147 with negative screenings for GDM in both, previous and ongoing pregnancies and otherwise uneventful course of gestation, formed the control group. Laboratory blood testing including fasting glycemia, lipid profile and HbA1c level was carried out 8 to 12 weeks post partum. Partly retrospectively and also on the day of biochemical lab tests the basic anthropometry was obtained.
RESULTS. Our data highlighted increased BMI and raised WHR, gestational diabetes mellitus in previous pregnancy, family history of diabetes mellitus and advanced age as maternal factors predisposing for GDM onset.
CONCLUSIONS. We believe that identification of women with carbohydrate intolerance, along with establishing more risk factors for the onset of gestational diabetes mellitus would be crucial for better monitoring the outcomes and sequels of GDM. GDM women represent a public health concern because of increased maternal and neonatal morbidity. This population study on the sample of Polish women enabled to present pregnant individuals at risk. Hopefully it would serve to promote international consensus on the controversial issue of the screening, diagnosis and management of GDM.
Keywords: gestational diabetesrisk factors