open access

Vol 5, No 4 (2004): Practical Diabetology
Review articles (submitted)
Published online: 2004-07-21
Get Citation

Hormone replacement therapy and diabetes mellitus

Marek Bolanowski
Diabetologia Praktyczna 2004;5(4):195-200.

open access

Vol 5, No 4 (2004): Practical Diabetology
Review articles (submitted)
Published online: 2004-07-21

Abstract


The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women requires proper therapeutic regimen. Both glucose metabolism disturbances as the potential benefits and risks due to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) should be taken in the consideration.

Lipid abnormalities, atheromatosis and obesity are common in the menopause. As women age, they are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance rises. Moreover, in one third of these women diabetes remains undiagnosed. Diabetic women suffer more often from arterial hypertension and harmful lipid profile in comparison with non-diabetic ones. Cardiovascular events are the most common cause of death in diabetic women.

Beneficial effect of HRT on cardiovascular risk factors was reported previously. But, pharmacological and non-pharmacological control of body mass, lipids and glucose concentration, normalization of blood pressure, smoking cessation, decrease of alcohol consumption, optimal dietary habits and regular physical activity are of great importance.

All accepted HRT contraindications must be regarded in diabetic patients. The choice of type of HRT (dose, preparation, route of administration) should be based on patients age, metabolic disturbances, potential risks of estrogen. For the diabetic postmenopausal women transdermal route, lower dose of estrogen, and progestogen without androgenic properties should be adviced.

Abstract


The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women requires proper therapeutic regimen. Both glucose metabolism disturbances as the potential benefits and risks due to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) should be taken in the consideration.

Lipid abnormalities, atheromatosis and obesity are common in the menopause. As women age, they are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance rises. Moreover, in one third of these women diabetes remains undiagnosed. Diabetic women suffer more often from arterial hypertension and harmful lipid profile in comparison with non-diabetic ones. Cardiovascular events are the most common cause of death in diabetic women.

Beneficial effect of HRT on cardiovascular risk factors was reported previously. But, pharmacological and non-pharmacological control of body mass, lipids and glucose concentration, normalization of blood pressure, smoking cessation, decrease of alcohol consumption, optimal dietary habits and regular physical activity are of great importance.

All accepted HRT contraindications must be regarded in diabetic patients. The choice of type of HRT (dose, preparation, route of administration) should be based on patients age, metabolic disturbances, potential risks of estrogen. For the diabetic postmenopausal women transdermal route, lower dose of estrogen, and progestogen without androgenic properties should be adviced.
Get Citation

Keywords

diabetes mellitus; hormone replacement therapy; cardiovascular disease

About this article
Title

Hormone replacement therapy and diabetes mellitus

Journal

Clinical Diabetology

Issue

Vol 5, No 4 (2004): Practical Diabetology

Pages

195-200

Published online

2004-07-21

Bibliographic record

Diabetologia Praktyczna 2004;5(4):195-200.

Keywords

diabetes mellitus
hormone replacement therapy
cardiovascular disease

Authors

Marek Bolanowski

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

 

Wydawcą serwisu jest  "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., ul. Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl