open access

Vol 9, No 1 (2008): Practical Diabetology
Review articles (submitted)
Published online: 2008-04-01
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Dietary treatment in adult diabetic patients

Wiktor B. Szostak, Aleksandra Cichocka
Diabetologia Praktyczna 2008;9(1):18-27.

open access

Vol 9, No 1 (2008): Practical Diabetology
Review articles (submitted)
Published online: 2008-04-01

Abstract

The main goals of diabetes treatment is: 1. to achieve and maintain normal or close to normal blood glucose levels, lipid profile, and blood pressure values; 2. to prevent, or to slow, the rate of development of the chronic complications of diabetes. In overweight patients body mass should be reduced by at least 10% by decrease in fat and carbohydrate intake. Protein intake should amount to at least 0.8 g/kg of normal body mass, covering 15-20% of energy requirement. Carbohydrate intake should account for 45-50% energy. Products of low glycemic index (< 50) are preferred. Total fat intake should account for 30-35% energy, saturated fatty acids ≤ 7% energy, and trans isomers of unsaturated fatty acids < 1% energy. Polyunsaturated fatty acids should be consumed in the amounts that are recommended for healthy people. Salt intake should be reduced to 5 g daily. Meals should be regular, consumed 4-6 times a day, at the same hours. The recommended, limited and contraindicated food products for diabetics are listed. We presented also the graphic illustration of groups of recommended food items, that facilitates composing the daily food ration consistent with the recommendations concerning nutrient proportions. Examples of daily menus of 1200, 1500, 1800 and 2000 kcal are presented. (Diabet. Prakt. 2008; 9: 18–27)

Abstract

The main goals of diabetes treatment is: 1. to achieve and maintain normal or close to normal blood glucose levels, lipid profile, and blood pressure values; 2. to prevent, or to slow, the rate of development of the chronic complications of diabetes. In overweight patients body mass should be reduced by at least 10% by decrease in fat and carbohydrate intake. Protein intake should amount to at least 0.8 g/kg of normal body mass, covering 15-20% of energy requirement. Carbohydrate intake should account for 45-50% energy. Products of low glycemic index (< 50) are preferred. Total fat intake should account for 30-35% energy, saturated fatty acids ≤ 7% energy, and trans isomers of unsaturated fatty acids < 1% energy. Polyunsaturated fatty acids should be consumed in the amounts that are recommended for healthy people. Salt intake should be reduced to 5 g daily. Meals should be regular, consumed 4-6 times a day, at the same hours. The recommended, limited and contraindicated food products for diabetics are listed. We presented also the graphic illustration of groups of recommended food items, that facilitates composing the daily food ration consistent with the recommendations concerning nutrient proportions. Examples of daily menus of 1200, 1500, 1800 and 2000 kcal are presented. (Diabet. Prakt. 2008; 9: 18–27)
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Keywords

diabetes; diet; recommended foods; menus

About this article
Title

Dietary treatment in adult diabetic patients

Journal

Clinical Diabetology

Issue

Vol 9, No 1 (2008): Practical Diabetology

Pages

18-27

Published online

2008-04-01

Bibliographic record

Diabetologia Praktyczna 2008;9(1):18-27.

Keywords

diabetes
diet
recommended foods
menus

Authors

Wiktor B. Szostak
Aleksandra Cichocka

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