Vol 8, No 6 (2019)
Review article
Published online: 2020-01-23

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Muscle cramps — a mini review of possible causes and treatment options available with a special emphasis on diabetics — a narrative review

Sayak Roy1
Clin Diabetol 2019;8(6):310-317.


Muscle cramps are characterized by sudden, painful involuntary contraction of the muscles. The cramps sometimes become disabling and the prevalence is more in the elderly. The etiology of the cramps are diverse and some time the cramps are idiopathic. There are many underlying pathophysiological disorders like hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, hypothyroidism, and hepatorenal dysfunction which causes muscle cramp. Similarly, diabetes mellitus results in muscle cramps due to electrolytic imbalance, hypoglycemia, peripheral arterial insufficiency, and neuropathies. Persistent muscle pain in diabetic patients degrades the quality of life of those patients. Although the pathophysiology and etiology of the muscle cramp are understood to some extent, the same is less explored from diabetes mellitus perspective. Hence the objective of this review is to explore the underlying factors responsible for muscle cramps in diabetes so that proper strategy for pharmacotherapy can be made to manage this condition.

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