open access

Vol 6, No 5 (2017)
Review
Published online: 2017-12-28
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Diagnosis and treatment of diabetic retinopathy — historical overview

Wojciech Matuszewski, Elżbieta Bandurska-Stankiewicz, Robert Modzelewski, Urszula Kamińska, Magdalena Stefanowicz-Rutkowska
DOI: 10.5603/DK.2017.0030
·
Clinical Diabetology 2017;6(5):182-188.

open access

Vol 6, No 5 (2017)
Review
Published online: 2017-12-28

Abstract

Before the discovery of insulin, diabetes had been a fatal disease. Insulin extended lifespan of diabetic patients, yet it also gave rise to a number of chronic vascular complications, including diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmic lesions were first observed in 1798 by John Rollo. Precise assessment of the eye fundus became possible following the construction of ophthalmoscope, which later made it possible to propose a classification of diabetic eye disease. The history of diabetic retinopathy encompasses not only the discovery of diagnostic methods such as fluorescein angiography, ultrasound examination or optical coherence tomography, but also the history of its treatment. Both initially as well as at present, clinical nutrition constitutes the most important aspect of treatment. DCCT and UKPDS have shown that good metabolic balance plays a significant role in preventing and treating DR. Further studies proved that pharmacological treatment based on fibrates and angiotensin-convertingenzyme inhibitors. A turning point in the history of DR treatment appeared when laser photocoagulation was introduced in 1959. The discovery of epidermal growth factor in 1982 led to the use of anti-VEGF medications in treating maculopathy. Surgical treatment of DR primarily consisted of vitrectomy whose procedures are continually improved.

Abstract

Before the discovery of insulin, diabetes had been a fatal disease. Insulin extended lifespan of diabetic patients, yet it also gave rise to a number of chronic vascular complications, including diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmic lesions were first observed in 1798 by John Rollo. Precise assessment of the eye fundus became possible following the construction of ophthalmoscope, which later made it possible to propose a classification of diabetic eye disease. The history of diabetic retinopathy encompasses not only the discovery of diagnostic methods such as fluorescein angiography, ultrasound examination or optical coherence tomography, but also the history of its treatment. Both initially as well as at present, clinical nutrition constitutes the most important aspect of treatment. DCCT and UKPDS have shown that good metabolic balance plays a significant role in preventing and treating DR. Further studies proved that pharmacological treatment based on fibrates and angiotensin-convertingenzyme inhibitors. A turning point in the history of DR treatment appeared when laser photocoagulation was introduced in 1959. The discovery of epidermal growth factor in 1982 led to the use of anti-VEGF medications in treating maculopathy. Surgical treatment of DR primarily consisted of vitrectomy whose procedures are continually improved.
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Keywords

diabetes; complication; diabetic retinopathy

About this article
Title

Diagnosis and treatment of diabetic retinopathy — historical overview

Journal

Clinical Diabetology

Issue

Vol 6, No 5 (2017)

Pages

182-188

Published online

2017-12-28

DOI

10.5603/DK.2017.0030

Bibliographic record

Clinical Diabetology 2017;6(5):182-188.

Keywords

diabetes
complication
diabetic retinopathy

Authors

Wojciech Matuszewski
Elżbieta Bandurska-Stankiewicz
Robert Modzelewski
Urszula Kamińska
Magdalena Stefanowicz-Rutkowska

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