Vol 3, No 2 (2014)
Review article
Published online: 2014-05-14

open access

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Influence of glucocorticoids and glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphisms on glucose metabolism

Dorota Pisarczyk-Wiza, Katarzyna Ziemnicka, Bartłomiej Budny, Dorota Zozulińska-Ziółkiewicz
Diabetologia Kliniczna 2014;3(2):69-78.


In humans glucocorticoids (GS) regulate a broad spectrum of physiologic functions, including cell differentiation, metabolism and inflammatory re­sponses. These hormones play an important role in the maintenance of basal and stress-related homeo­stasis. Furthermore, glucocorticoids represent one of the most widely used therapeutic compounds in the treatment of inflammatory, autoimmune and lymp­hoproliferative disorders. According to the classic genomic model GS bind to intracellular receptors (hGR) and directly or indirectly regulate gene transcription and synthesis of proteins responsible for inflammatory process. Alterations in hGR action may have important implications for many critical biological processes, such as the behavioral and physiologic responses to stress, the immune and inflammatory reaction, the process of sleep, as well as basic functions, such as growth and reproduction, or response to treatment. Glucocorti­coids belong to the antagonistic hormons compared to insulin and play an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of glucose metabolism.