Vol 1, No 5 (2012)
Review article
Published online: 2013-01-07

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Diabetes mellitus type 1 as a risk factor of osteoporosis

Ewa Waliłko, Ewa Sawicka-Gałązka
Diabetologia Kliniczna 2012;1(5):201-207.


Osteopenia, osteoporosis and bone fractures are
significantly more common in type 1 diabetes
patients than in healthy population. The main factors
associated with decreased bone mineral density are
the onset of diabetes before puberty, long duration
of the disease and poor metabolic control. Pathogenic
factors of osteoporosis in type 1 diabetes are insulin
and IGF-1 deficiency, hyperglycaemia, ketoacidosis,
dyslipidaemia, active vitamin D deficiency, increased
urine calcium excretion, decreased levels of sex
hormones and coexistence of coeliac disease or other
autoimmunological diseases. In our paper we describe
mechanisms that may disturb bone remodelling
and be a cause of inappropriate function of
osteoblasts and osteoclasts in type 1 diabetes.
Presented data indicate usefulness of periodic
densitometric examinations in patients with type 1

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