open access

Vol 7, No 3 (2005)
Published online: 2005-11-07
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Biomedical materials. Part I: Definition of the biological film (biofilm) and physicochemical bases of the adhesion of organic substances to biomaterials

Dariusz A. Paduch, Jerzy Niedzielski
Chirurgia Polska 2005;7(3):180-191.

open access

Vol 7, No 3 (2005)
Published online: 2005-11-07

Abstract

Even though they have already been in use for 2000 years, real progress in the field of biomaterials followed the introduction of PMMA (polymethyl metacrylate) in 1937. Biomaterials are solid bodies and regarding their mechanical and physical properties they can be divided into metals, ceramic materials and polymers. Polymers are the materials most often applied in medicine. There are homopolymers (e.g. Polyethylene-PE, Polypropylene-PP) and copolymers (e.g. Polyurethanes). The use of biomaterials in clinical practice demands the solving of the following problems and issues: 1. toxicity, 2. biological compatibility (biocompatibility), 3. healing of tissues, 4. mechanical properties and material fatigue, 5. legal problems. Based on a review of the current world literature, the authors discuss the problems of altering the surface of the biomaterial, the creation of biofilm and the physicochemical base of the adhesion of organic substances and bacteria to biomaterials. The mechanisms of bacterial adhesion play the essential role in infectious complications in applying biomaterials. The expression of tissue and humoral response, and in consequence, the time of the proper functioning of the device depends on the properties of the biomaterial.

Abstract

Even though they have already been in use for 2000 years, real progress in the field of biomaterials followed the introduction of PMMA (polymethyl metacrylate) in 1937. Biomaterials are solid bodies and regarding their mechanical and physical properties they can be divided into metals, ceramic materials and polymers. Polymers are the materials most often applied in medicine. There are homopolymers (e.g. Polyethylene-PE, Polypropylene-PP) and copolymers (e.g. Polyurethanes). The use of biomaterials in clinical practice demands the solving of the following problems and issues: 1. toxicity, 2. biological compatibility (biocompatibility), 3. healing of tissues, 4. mechanical properties and material fatigue, 5. legal problems. Based on a review of the current world literature, the authors discuss the problems of altering the surface of the biomaterial, the creation of biofilm and the physicochemical base of the adhesion of organic substances and bacteria to biomaterials. The mechanisms of bacterial adhesion play the essential role in infectious complications in applying biomaterials. The expression of tissue and humoral response, and in consequence, the time of the proper functioning of the device depends on the properties of the biomaterial.
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Keywords

biomaterials; alteration of the surface; biofilm; bacterial adhesion

About this article
Title

Biomedical materials. Part I: Definition of the biological film (biofilm) and physicochemical bases of the adhesion of organic substances to biomaterials

Journal

Chirurgia Polska (Polish Surgery)

Issue

Vol 7, No 3 (2005)

Pages

180-191

Published online

2005-11-07

Bibliographic record

Chirurgia Polska 2005;7(3):180-191.

Keywords

biomaterials
alteration of the surface
biofilm
bacterial adhesion

Authors

Dariusz A. Paduch
Jerzy Niedzielski

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