Vol 25, No 4 (2021)
Original paper
Published online: 2021-07-14

open access

Page views 5955
Article views/downloads 348
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

Factors affecting blood pressure control in women aged 15–49

Serap Yavuz1, Servin Yeşil Günal2, Tuba Özkul2
Arterial Hypertension 2021;25(4):164-171.


Background: While 25% of adult women in the world are hypertensive, the percentage of women who cannot achieve blood pressure control despite taking medication is 55.9 ± 1.5%. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and control rate of hypertension and to detect the factors affecting this situation in women in the 15–49 age group.

Material and methods: Seven hundred women in the 15–49 age group were selected and a questionnaire was applied. Height, weight, and blood pressure were measured and spot urines were collected on the same day. 24-hour sodium excretion and daily salt intake were calculated using the Kawasaki method.

Results: While 14.3% of the women were hypertensive, only 19% of them were able to achieve blood pressure control. Fifty-eight percent of the hypertensive women use more than 15 g/day of salt and the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion of these women was 311.6 ± 39.5 mmol/L. Hypertensive women using less than 5 g/day of salt were 0.3%. Salty foods consumed by the hypertensive women were pickles (55.6%), cheese (92.6%), olives (88.8%), vine leaves (71.6%), sujuk and Turkish pastrami (47.6%), and tomato paste (100%).

Conclusions: In our study, participants were consuming large amounts of salt and there was a positive correlation between salt intake and blood pressure. Therefore, all efforts for sodium restriction are very important in the management of hypertension.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file


  1. He FJ, Markandu ND, Sagnella GA, et al. Plasma sodium: ignored and underestimated. Hypertension. 2005; 45(1): 98–102.
  2. Fact sheets. Hypertension. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hypertension.
  3. Sengul S, Akpolat T, Erdem Y, et al. Turkish Society of Hypertension and Renal Diseases. Changes in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rates in Turkey from 2003 to 2012. J Hypertens. 2016; 34(6): 1208–1217.
  4. Öztürk A, Aykut M, Günay O, et al. Prevalence and Factors Affecting of Hypertension in Adults Aged 30 Years and Over in Kayseri Province. Erciyes Tıp Dergisi (Erciyes Med. J.). 2011; 33(3): 219–228.
  5. Suckling RJ, He FJ, Markandu ND, et al. Dietary salt influences postprandial plasma sodium concentration and systolic blood pressure. Kidney Int. 2012; 81(4): 407–411.
  6. He FJ, Campbell NRC, MacGregor GA. Reducing salt intake to prevent hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2012; 32(4): 293–300.
  7. Adrogué HJ, Madias NE. The impact of sodium and potassium on hypertension risk. Semin Nephrol. 2014; 34(3): 257–272.
  8. Ha SK. Dietary salt intake and hypertension. Electrolyte Blood Press. 2014; 12(1): 7–18.
  9. Doyle ME, Glass KA. Sodium Reduction and Its Effect on Food Safety, Food Quality, and Human Health. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2010; 9(1): 44–56.
  10. WHO. Guideline: sodium intake for adults and children. 2012. http://www.who.int/ nutrition/publications/guidelines/sodium_intake_printversio n.pdf.
  11. Erdem Y, Arici M, Altun B, et al. The relationship between hypertension and salt intake in Turkish population: SALTURK study. Blood Press. 2010; 19(5): 313–318.
  12. Kong JS, Lee YK, Kim MiK, et al. Estimation model for habitual 24-hour urinary-sodium excretion using simple questionnaires from normotensive Koreans. PLoS One. 2018; 13(2): e0192588.
  13. Meyer HE, Johansson L, Eggen AE, et al. Sodium and Potassium Intake Assessed by Spot and 24-h Urine in the Population-Based Tromsø Study 2015-2016. Nutrients. 2019; 11(7).
  14. Dos Santos EM, Brito DJ, Calado IL, et al. Sodium excretion and associated factors in urine samples of African descendants in Alcântara, Brazil: a population based study. Ren Fail. 2018; 40(1): 22–29.
  15. Jędrusik P, Symonides B, Gaciong Z. Estimation of 24-hour urinary sodium, potassium, and creatinine excretion in patients with hypertension: can spot urine measurements replace 24-hour urine collection? Pol Arch Intern Med. 2019; 129(7-8): 506–515.
  16. Tabara Y, Takahashi Y, Kumagai K, et al. Nagahama study group. Descriptive epidemiology of spot urine sodium-to-potassium ratio clarified close relationship with blood pressure level: the Nagahama study. J Hypertens. 2015; 33(12): 2407–2413.
  17. Xu J, Du X, Bai Y, et al. Assessment and validation of spot urine in estimating the 24-h urinary sodium, potassium, and sodium/potassium ratio in Chinese adults. J Hum Hypertens. 2020; 34(2): 184–192.
  18. Noncommunicable diseases: Risk factors. https://www.who.int/gho/ncd/risk_factors/bmi_text/en/.
  19. Kawasaki T, Itoh K, Uezono K, et al. A simple method for estimating 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion from second morning voiding urine specimen in adults. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1993; 20(1): 7–14.
  20. Gudmundsdottir H, Høieggen A, Stenehjem A, et al. Hypertension in women: latest findings and clinical implications. Ther Adv Chronic Dis. 2012; 3(3): 137–146.
  21. Rosenthal T, Oparil S. Hypertension in women. J Hum Hypertens. 2000; 14(10-11): 691–704.
  22. Bahrami H, Sadatsafavi M, Pourshams A, et al. Obesity and hypertension in an Iranian cohort study; Iranian women experience higher rates of obesity and hypertension than American women. BMC Public Health. 2006; 6: 158.
  23. Ghosh S, Kumar M. Prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension among persons aged 15-49 in India: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2019; 9(12): e029714.
  24. Uechi K, Asakura K, Sasaki Y, et al. Simple questions in salt intake behavior assessment: comparison with urinary sodium excretion in Japanese adults. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2017; 26(5): 769–780.
  25. Mill JG, Malta DC, Machado ÍE, et al. Estimation of salt intake in the Brazilian population: results from the 2013 National Health Survey. Rev Bras Epidemiol. 2019; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190009.SUPL.2.
  26. Yan L, Bi Z, Tang J, et al. Relationships Between Blood Pressure and 24-Hour Urinary Excretion of Sodium and Potassium by Body Mass Index Status in Chinese Adults. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2015; 17(12): 916–925.
  27. Modesti PA, Marzotti I, Rapi S, et al. Daily urinary sodium and potassium excretion in Chinese first-generation migrants in Italy. Int J Cardiol. 2019; 286: 175–180.
  28. Charlton K, Yeatman H, Houweling F, et al. Urinary sodium excretion, dietary sources of sodium intake and knowledge and practices around salt use in a group of healthy Australian women. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2010; 34(4): 356–363.