open access

Vol 25, No 2 (2021)
Original paper
Published online: 2021-06-15
Get Citation

Immediate effect of trataka on blood pressure indices in individuals with primary hypertension — a randomized controlled trial

A S Kusuma, Nandeesh N S, Shivaprasad Shetty, Prashanth Shetty
DOI: 10.5603/AH.a2021.0013
·
Arterial Hypertension 2021;25(2):82-87.

open access

Vol 25, No 2 (2021)
ORIGINAL PAPERS
Published online: 2021-06-15

Abstract

Background and Objectives: Hypertension control remains a major global challenge. Behavioral approaches recommended for blood pressure (BP) reduction include: stress reduction, increased exercise and healthy dietary habits. Some study findings suggest that yoga exerts beneficial cardiovascular effects including blood pressure alterations. This study was done to assess the effect of trataka, a yogic cleansing technique, on blood pressure and heart rate variables in patients with hypertension and thereby substantiate the clinical understanding of its effect on blood pressure.

Material and methods: A total of 60 subjects with primary hypertension (age 25–45 years) were randomized to the study. The yoga group practiced trataka for 30 minutes with guided instructions and the control group was asked to sit calmly for 30 minutes. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded before and after the practice.

Results: The individuals who practiced trataka showed significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p < 0.05), mean heart rate (HR) (p < 0.05), and mean RR (p < 0.05) after the procedure. There were no significant changes observed in the control group as compared to the yoga group.

Conclusion: The practice of trataka leads to significant reduction in blood pressure and heart rate in patients with primary hypertensive. Though trataka is considered as a cleansing technique, it induces calmness similar to a mental state during meditation. Evidently, both techniques bear the potential to reduce stress and, henceforth, blood pressure and heart rate.

Abstract

Background and Objectives: Hypertension control remains a major global challenge. Behavioral approaches recommended for blood pressure (BP) reduction include: stress reduction, increased exercise and healthy dietary habits. Some study findings suggest that yoga exerts beneficial cardiovascular effects including blood pressure alterations. This study was done to assess the effect of trataka, a yogic cleansing technique, on blood pressure and heart rate variables in patients with hypertension and thereby substantiate the clinical understanding of its effect on blood pressure.

Material and methods: A total of 60 subjects with primary hypertension (age 25–45 years) were randomized to the study. The yoga group practiced trataka for 30 minutes with guided instructions and the control group was asked to sit calmly for 30 minutes. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded before and after the practice.

Results: The individuals who practiced trataka showed significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p < 0.05), mean heart rate (HR) (p < 0.05), and mean RR (p < 0.05) after the procedure. There were no significant changes observed in the control group as compared to the yoga group.

Conclusion: The practice of trataka leads to significant reduction in blood pressure and heart rate in patients with primary hypertensive. Though trataka is considered as a cleansing technique, it induces calmness similar to a mental state during meditation. Evidently, both techniques bear the potential to reduce stress and, henceforth, blood pressure and heart rate.

Get Citation

Keywords

trataka; yoga; hypertension; blood pressure; heart rate variability; yogic visual technique

About this article
Title

Immediate effect of trataka on blood pressure indices in individuals with primary hypertension — a randomized controlled trial

Journal

Arterial Hypertension

Issue

Vol 25, No 2 (2021)

Article type

Original paper

Pages

82-87

Published online

2021-06-15

DOI

10.5603/AH.a2021.0013

Bibliographic record

Arterial Hypertension 2021;25(2):82-87.

Keywords

trataka
yoga
hypertension
blood pressure
heart rate variability
yogic visual technique

Authors

A S Kusuma
Nandeesh N S
Shivaprasad Shetty
Prashanth Shetty

References (29)
  1. Carretero OA, Oparil S. Essential hypertension. Part I: definition and etiology. Circulation. 2000; 101(3): 329–335.
  2. Gupta V, Rai N, Toppo N, et al. An epidemiological study of prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors among non migratory tribal population of Mawai block of Mandla district of central India. Int J Commun Med Publ Health. 2018; 5(3): 957.
  3. Hackam DG, Khan NA, Hemmelgarn BR, et al. Canadian Hypertension Education Program. The 2010 Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for the management of hypertension: part 2 — therapy. Can J Cardiol. 2010; 26(5): 249–258.
  4. James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, et al. 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA. 2014; 311(5): 507–520.
  5. Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD, et al. Americal College of Cardiology, Americal heart Association, American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014; 63(25 Pt B): 2960–2984.
  6. Muktibhodananda S. Hatha yoga pradipika. Publications Trust Yoga, Munger, Bihar, India 2006.
  7. Rajpoot PL, Vaishnav P. Effect of Trataka on Anxiety among Adolescents. Int J Psych Behav Sci . 2015 ; 8(12): 4004–4007.
  8. Nagaratha R, Nagendra H. Yoga for Promotion of Positive Health. Swami Vivekananda Yoga Prakashana, Bangalore 2000.
  9. Telles S, Singh N, Balkrishna A. Heart rate variability changes during high frequency yoga breathing and breath awareness. Biopsychosoc Med. 2011; 5: 4.
  10. Zhao S, Xie L, Hu H, et al. A study of neonatal swimming (water therapy) applied in clinical obstetrics. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2005; 17(1): 59–62.
  11. An H, Kulkarni R, Nagarathna R, et al. Measures of heart rate variability in women following a meditation technique. Int J Yoga. 2010; 3(1): 6–9.
  12. Franklin SS. Systolic blood pressure: it's time to take control. Am J Hypertens. 2004; 17(12 Pt 2): 49S–54S.
  13. Telles S, Naveen KV, Dash M, et al. Effect of yoga on self-rated visual discomfort in computer users. Head Face Med. 2006; 2: 46.
  14. Hainsworth R. Circulatory responses from lung inflation in anesthetized dogs. Am J Physiol. 1974; 226(2): 247–255.
  15. Anand BK, Chhina GS, Singh B. Some aspects of electroencephalographic studies in Yogis. Electroencephalography Clin Neurophysiol. 1961; 13(3): 452–456.
  16. Sakakibara M, Takeuchi S, Hayano J. Effect of relaxation training on cardiac parasympathetic tone. Psychophysiology. 1994; 31(3): 223–228.
  17. Anand BK. Yoga and medical sciences. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1991; 35(2): 84–87.
  18. Rahman F, Pechnik S, Gross D, et al. Low frequency power of heart rate variability reflects baroreflex function, not cardiac sympathetic innervation. Clin Auton Res. 2011; 21(3): 133–141.
  19. Ganong WF. The autonomic nervous system. Review of Medical Physiology. 22nd edn. New York, McGraw-Hill 200: 223–231.
  20. Vyas R, Dikshit N. Effect of meditation on respiratory system, cardiovascular system and lipid profile. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002; 46(4): 487–491.
  21. Briasoulis A, Agarwal V, Messerli F. Alcohol Consumption and the Risk of Hypertension in Men and Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Clin Hypertens. 2012; 14(11): 792–798.
  22. Vijayalakshmi P, Bhavanani AB, Patil A, et al. Modulation of stress induced by isometric handgrip test in hypertensive patients following yogic relaxation training. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2004; 48(1): 59–64.
  23. Kulkarni V. Hypertension in the elderly. J Assoc Physicians India. 2001; 49: 873–876.
  24. Telles S, Naveen KV, Dash M, et al. Effect of yoga on self-rated visual discomfort in computer users. Head Face Med. 2006; 2: 46.
  25. Telles S, Naveen KV, Dash M, et al. Effect of yoga on self-rated visual discomfort in computer users. Head Face Med. 2006; 2: 46.
  26. Gopal KS, Bhatnagar OP, Subramanian N, et al. Effect of yogasanas and pranayamas on blood pressure, pulse rate and some respiratory functions. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1973; 17(3): 273–276.
  27. Misra A, Singhal N, Sivakumar B, et al. Nutrition transition in India: secular trends in dietary intake and their relationship to diet-related non-communicable diseases. J Diabetes. 2011; 3(4): 278–292.
  28. Iyengar B. Light on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Philosophy East and West. 1996; 46(2): 291.
  29. Bhadra C, Chatterjee K. Effect of Trataka on blood pressure of college level female students. Int J Yoga Physiother Phys Edu. 2017; 2(5): 32–4.

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., ul. Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail: viamedica@viamedica.pl