open access

Ahead of print
Review paper
Published online: 2020-11-12
Get Citation

The evolutionary development of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system and its importance for the survival of the human species

Natalia Butt-Hussaim, Jacek Manitius
DOI: 10.5603/AH.a2020.0021

open access

Ahead of print
REVIEW
Published online: 2020-11-12

Abstract

Kidneys produce a number of substances that affect intrarenal blood circulation; however, the key system that regulates blood flow in both general and local circulation (including the renal circulation) is the renin angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Individual elements of the RAA system are synthesized in separate tissues of the body under the influence of specific local factors. The system functions as a whole due to mutual compounds based on feedbacks and it consists of three basic elements: renin, angiotensin and aldosterone. The history of research on the RAA system dates back to the late 19th century. One of the important stages of exploring the mechanisms related to RAA system functioning was the publication (in 1898) of the results of research on the hypertensive effect on blood pressure of rabbit kidney extracts (containing renin)4 obtained by prof. Robert Tigerstedt and his assistant Per Bergman. Goldblatt observations from 1934 were of similar significance. He found a correlation between dog kidney ischaemia and the occurrence of hypertension. In the following years, the enzymatic properties and structure of renin and angiotensin peptides, resulting from the action of renin and the enzyme converting angiotensin I (Ang I) to its active form - angiotensin II (Ang II), were clarified. The latter belongs to the most important regulators of aldosterone secretion (discovered by Simpson, Tait and Wetstein in 1953). In 1939, Braun-Menandez and Page proved that under the influence of renin, peptide pressure compounds are formed. Consequently, it was documented that angiotensin was the cause of hypertension in animals with ischemic kidney, and in 1954 Skeggs described the sequence of angiotensin I and II. In 1960-1961, Davis, Genest, Laragh and others identified systemic RAA occurrences. However, to provide the insight of evolutionary significance of the RAA system for humans, the phylogenetic development of this enzyme-endocrine system in vertebrates should be investigated. The largest database of information regarding this system in the aforementioned group of animals are the research of Hirofumi Sokabe and Hiroko Nishimur, which, among others, are the basis for this manuscript.

Abstract

Kidneys produce a number of substances that affect intrarenal blood circulation; however, the key system that regulates blood flow in both general and local circulation (including the renal circulation) is the renin angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Individual elements of the RAA system are synthesized in separate tissues of the body under the influence of specific local factors. The system functions as a whole due to mutual compounds based on feedbacks and it consists of three basic elements: renin, angiotensin and aldosterone. The history of research on the RAA system dates back to the late 19th century. One of the important stages of exploring the mechanisms related to RAA system functioning was the publication (in 1898) of the results of research on the hypertensive effect on blood pressure of rabbit kidney extracts (containing renin)4 obtained by prof. Robert Tigerstedt and his assistant Per Bergman. Goldblatt observations from 1934 were of similar significance. He found a correlation between dog kidney ischaemia and the occurrence of hypertension. In the following years, the enzymatic properties and structure of renin and angiotensin peptides, resulting from the action of renin and the enzyme converting angiotensin I (Ang I) to its active form - angiotensin II (Ang II), were clarified. The latter belongs to the most important regulators of aldosterone secretion (discovered by Simpson, Tait and Wetstein in 1953). In 1939, Braun-Menandez and Page proved that under the influence of renin, peptide pressure compounds are formed. Consequently, it was documented that angiotensin was the cause of hypertension in animals with ischemic kidney, and in 1954 Skeggs described the sequence of angiotensin I and II. In 1960-1961, Davis, Genest, Laragh and others identified systemic RAA occurrences. However, to provide the insight of evolutionary significance of the RAA system for humans, the phylogenetic development of this enzyme-endocrine system in vertebrates should be investigated. The largest database of information regarding this system in the aforementioned group of animals are the research of Hirofumi Sokabe and Hiroko Nishimur, which, among others, are the basis for this manuscript.

Get Citation

Keywords

renin, angiotensin, aldosterone, RAA, evolution, vertebrates

About this article
Title

The evolutionary development of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system and its importance for the survival of the human species

Journal

Arterial Hypertension

Issue

Ahead of print

Article type

Review paper

Published online

2020-11-12

DOI

10.5603/AH.a2020.0021

Keywords

renin
angiotensin
aldosterone
RAA
evolution
vertebrates

Authors

Natalia Butt-Hussaim
Jacek Manitius

References (6)
  1. Cowley AW. Long-term control of arterial blood pressure. Physiol Rev. 1992; 72(1): 231–300.
  2. Goldblatt H, Lynch J, Hanzal RF, et al. Studies on experimental hypertension : I. The production of persistent elevation of systolic blood pressure by means of renal ischemia. J Exp Med. 1934; 59(3): 347–379.
  3. Guyton AC. Blood pressure contro — special role of the kidneys and body fluids. Science. 1991; 252(5014): 1813–1816.
  4. Marks LS, Maxwell MH. Tigerstedt and the discovery of renin. An historical note. Hypertension. 1979; 1(4): 384–388.
  5. Nishimura H. Renin–angiotensin system in vertebrates: phylogenetic view of structure and function. Anat Sci Int. 2017; 92(2): 215–247.
  6. Sokabe H. Phylogeny of the renal effects of angiotensin. Kidney Int. 1974; 6(5): 263–271.

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., ul. Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail: viamedica@viamedica.pl