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Vol 19, No 2 (2015)
ORIGINAL PAPERS
Published online: 2015-06-24
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Prevalence of hypertension and metabolic disturbances in a population-based cohort of postmenopausal women. The Gniewkowo Women Study

Tadeusz Dereziński, Jacek Wolf, Beata Wąsikowska, Anna Szyndler, Marzena Chrostowska, Krzysztof Narkiewicz
DOI: 10.5603/AH.2015.0012
·
Arterial Hypertension 2015;19(2):88-94.

open access

Vol 19, No 2 (2015)
ORIGINAL PAPERS
Published online: 2015-06-24

Abstract

Background Metabolic syndrome (MS) constitutes a major determinant of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in adults. This phenomenon in women before menopause is attenuated by gonadal hormonal activity. After menopause the CV disease (CVD) incidence among women increases dramatically, and often overtakes the prevalence observed among men. Little is known about the CV-risk characteristic of early postmenopausal women in

our country. Therefore the aim of our study was to investigate the frequency and distribution of metabolic syndrome components in early postmenopausal women residing urban-rural area in central Poland.

Material and Methods All women aged 65–75 years, opted for one general practice form an urban-rural area in Central Poland were invited to participate. The anthropometric measures, blood pressure and blood sampling were performed. For the purpose of the study, the modified NCEP ATP III criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome were used.

Results 59.5% of eligible women accepted the invitation. Additional 5.2% of randomly selected women from initially non-responders group were added to the investigated population. In the studied group only 15.7% had normal body weight and 82.4% met the criteria for abdominal obesity (92% according to IDF). 81.9% of women were characterized by hypertension, even more met the NCEP ATP III criterion for elevated blood pressure (BP) (91.5%). Only 24.2% of studied women were treated effectively; moreover, despite treatment with three antihypertensive drugs 17.4% hypertensive women did not reach target BP values. Over one quarter of studied women suffered from diabetes mellitus, among whom 25.5% were not aware of the presence of the disease. Another 37.1% of women presented with prediabetic condition. Lipid disturbances were noted in the 25.3% and 18.4% of women for triglycerides (TG) increase and low HDL-C levels, respectively. According to modified NCEP ATP III criteria we were able to diagnose 58.8% of studied women with metabolic syndrome. Additionally, 31.9% of postmenopausal women were active cigarette smokers.

Conclusions Metabolic profile of early postmenopausal women in central Poland is strikingly abnormal. High incidence of metabolic syndrome is mainly determined by extremely prevalent increased blood pressure and abdominal obesity. With relation to all identified metabolic syndrome components, the strategy aimed at the improvement of body mass status, diabetes diagnosis and especially blood pressure control appear to be of highest priority.

Abstract

Background Metabolic syndrome (MS) constitutes a major determinant of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in adults. This phenomenon in women before menopause is attenuated by gonadal hormonal activity. After menopause the CV disease (CVD) incidence among women increases dramatically, and often overtakes the prevalence observed among men. Little is known about the CV-risk characteristic of early postmenopausal women in

our country. Therefore the aim of our study was to investigate the frequency and distribution of metabolic syndrome components in early postmenopausal women residing urban-rural area in central Poland.

Material and Methods All women aged 65–75 years, opted for one general practice form an urban-rural area in Central Poland were invited to participate. The anthropometric measures, blood pressure and blood sampling were performed. For the purpose of the study, the modified NCEP ATP III criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome were used.

Results 59.5% of eligible women accepted the invitation. Additional 5.2% of randomly selected women from initially non-responders group were added to the investigated population. In the studied group only 15.7% had normal body weight and 82.4% met the criteria for abdominal obesity (92% according to IDF). 81.9% of women were characterized by hypertension, even more met the NCEP ATP III criterion for elevated blood pressure (BP) (91.5%). Only 24.2% of studied women were treated effectively; moreover, despite treatment with three antihypertensive drugs 17.4% hypertensive women did not reach target BP values. Over one quarter of studied women suffered from diabetes mellitus, among whom 25.5% were not aware of the presence of the disease. Another 37.1% of women presented with prediabetic condition. Lipid disturbances were noted in the 25.3% and 18.4% of women for triglycerides (TG) increase and low HDL-C levels, respectively. According to modified NCEP ATP III criteria we were able to diagnose 58.8% of studied women with metabolic syndrome. Additionally, 31.9% of postmenopausal women were active cigarette smokers.

Conclusions Metabolic profile of early postmenopausal women in central Poland is strikingly abnormal. High incidence of metabolic syndrome is mainly determined by extremely prevalent increased blood pressure and abdominal obesity. With relation to all identified metabolic syndrome components, the strategy aimed at the improvement of body mass status, diabetes diagnosis and especially blood pressure control appear to be of highest priority.

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Keywords

hypertension, metabolic syndrome, menopause, women

About this article
Title

Prevalence of hypertension and metabolic disturbances in a population-based cohort of postmenopausal women. The Gniewkowo Women Study

Journal

Arterial Hypertension

Issue

Vol 19, No 2 (2015)

Pages

88-94

Published online

2015-06-24

DOI

10.5603/AH.2015.0012

Bibliographic record

Arterial Hypertension 2015;19(2):88-94.

Keywords

hypertension
metabolic syndrome
menopause
women

Authors

Tadeusz Dereziński
Jacek Wolf
Beata Wąsikowska
Anna Szyndler
Marzena Chrostowska
Krzysztof Narkiewicz

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