Vol 27, No 2 (2022)
Technical note
Published online: 2022-03-10

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Evaluation of target volume and dose accuracy in intrafractional cases of lung cancer based on 4D-CT and 4D-CBCT images using an in-house dynamic thorax phantom

Firyal Dhiyaul Haqqi1, Arief Sudarmaji1, Wahyu Edy Wibowo2, Nuruddin Nasution2, Handoko Handoko2, Annisa Rahma Fauzia2, Jihadil Qudsi3, Supriyanto Ardjo Pawiro1
Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2022;27(2):360-370.


Background: This study aimed to evaluate the target volume and dose accuracy in intrafraction cases using 4-dimensional imaging modalities and an in-house dynamic thorax phantom.

Intrafraction motion can create errors in the definition of target volumes, which can significantly affect the accuracy of radiation delivery. Motion management using 4-dimensional modalities is required to reduce the risk.

Materials and methods: Two variations in both breathing amplitude and target size were applied in this study. From these variations, internal target volume (ITVs) contoured in 10 phases of 4D-CT (ITV10), average intensity projection (AIP), and mid-ventilation (Mid-V) images were reconstructed from all 4D-CT datasets as reference images. Free-breathing (FB), augmentation free-breathing (Aug-FB), and static images were also acquired using the 3D-CT protocol for comparisons. In dose evaluations, the 4D-CBCT modality was applied before irradiation to obtain position correction. Then, the dose was evaluated with Gafchromic film EBT3.

Results: The ITV10, AIP, and Mid-V provide GTVs that match the static GTV. The AIP and Mid-V reference images allowed reductions in ITVs and PTVs without reducing the range of target movement areas compared to FB and Aug-FB images with varying percentages in the range of 29.17% to 48.70%. In the dose evaluation, the largest discrepancies between the measured and planned doses were 10.39% for the FB images and 9.21% for the Aug-FB images.

Conclusion: The 4D-CT modality can enable accurate definition of the target volume and reduce the PTV. Furthermore, 4D-CBCT provides localization images during registration to facilitate position correction and accurate dose delivery.

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