Vol 26, No 4 (2021)
Research paper
Published online: 2021-03-30

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Pathological stage, surgical margin and lymphovascular invasion as prognostic factors after salvage radiotherapy for post-prostatectomy relapsed prostate cancer — outcomes and optimization strategies

Isabel Rodrigues1, Carolina Ferreira12, Joana Gonçalves12, Luísa Carvalho1, Jorge Oliveira2, Carla Castro12, Ângelo Oliveira12
Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2021;26(4):535-544.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Salvage radiotherapy (sRT) is the main potentially curative treatment after biochemical failure/locoregional relapse post-radical prostatectomy (RP).

The aim of the study was to characterize the population who underwent sRT after RP at our Department, to understand the influence of several potential prognosis factors, and to determine possible optimization strategies.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients undergoing sRT at our department between 2012 and 2017, evaluating patient, tumor and treatment characteristics, restaging procedures and clinical outcomes — namely biochemical relapse-free survival (BC-RFS), clinical relapse-free survival (C-RFS), additional hormone therapy-free survival (HT-FS) and overall survival (OS). We assessed potential prognostic factors by univariate and multivariate models (MVA).

RESULTS: We included 277 patients (median age 68 years). Median pre-sRT PSA was > 0.5ng/mL in 54.9%. All underwent prostate bed irradiation. Pelvic lymph nodes were included in 9.7%. Outcome analysis was performed for 264 patients (35.6 months median follow-up).  At 3 years, BC-RFS was 61.4%, C-RFS was 81.3%, HT-FS was 79.9% and OS was 96.6%. Most relapses occurred in regional lymph nodes only (47.9% patients who relapsed). On MVA, lymphovascular invasion, advanced pT-stages and negative margins negatively influenced BC-RFS (p = 0.029, p = 0.002 and p < 0.001) and HT-FS (p = 0.001, p = 0.029 and p = 0.002). C-RFS was worsened by lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.009) and negative margins (p = 0.015). These had no effect on OS. BC-RFS and HT-FS were improved when sRT started while PSA ≤ 0.5 ng/mL (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Lymphovascular invasion, higher pT-stages and negative margins negatively affected prognosis. An early start of sRT (PSA ≤ 0.5 ng/mL) predicted better BC-RFS and HT-FS.

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