Vol 26, No 3 (2021)
Research paper
Published online: 2021-03-30

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Dose delivery accuracy on helical tomotherapy for 4-dimensional tumor motion — a phantom study

Raghavendra Holla1, David Khanna Khanna2, V.K. Sathiya Narayanan1
Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2021;26(3):380-388.


BACKGROUND: The advances in image guidance and capability of highly conformal dose deliveries made possible the use of helical tomotherapy (HT) for lung cancer treatment. To determine the effect of respiratory motion on the delivered dose in HT, film dosimetry using a dynamic phantom was performed.

This was a phantom study to determine the effect of motion on the delivered dose in HT.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: 4D computed tomography (4DCT) was acquired for various target motions of CIRS dynamic phantom (CIRS Inc., Norfolk, USA) with 2.5cm diameter spherical target of volume 8.2 cc moving in the COS4 motion pattern. AveIP images and treatment plans were generated in the HT planning system. Target excursions during treatment delivery were changed in the superior-inferior, anteroposterior and lateral directions. The breathing cycle time was varied from 4 to 5 sec. and also the delivery interruptions were introduced. A film was exposed for each delivery and gamma analysis was performed.

RESULTS: The gamma pass rate (GPR) with 3%, 2 mm criteria for the target motion in the S-I direction showed a significant reduction from 97.5% to 54.4% as the motion increased from 3 mm to  8 mm (p = 0.03). For the target motion in S-I = 8 mm, L-R = A-P = 3 mm, the percentage decrease in the GPR was 74% (p = 0.001) for three interruptions.

CONCLUSION: The ITV based approach in HT is ideal for a shallow breathing situation when the tumor excursions were confined to 5 mm in the S-I and 3 mm in L-R and A-P directions.

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