Vol 26, No 4 (2021)
Research paper
Published online: 2021-03-26

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Breast cancer hypofractionated radiotherapy in 2-weeks with 2D technique: 5-year clinical outcomes of a phase 2 trial

Budhi Singh Yadav1, Divya Dahiya2, Ankita Gupta3, Diksha Rana1, Ngangom Robert1, Manorma Sharma1, Bharatbhushan Rao3
Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2021;26(4):503-511.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: To report clinical outcomes and late toxicities of a 2-week hypofractionated post-operative loco-regional radiotherapy in patients with breast cancer.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This trial was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee and registered with gov, no. NCT02460744. Between June 2013 and October 2014, 50 patients with breast cancer, post mastectomy or breast conserving surgery (BCS) were included in this study, of whom 10 had BCS. Patients were planned on a 2-dimentional (2D) simulator with 2 tangential fields and an incident supraclavicular field. Radiotherapy dose was 34 Gy/10#/2 weeks and a sequential boost of 10 Gy/5#/1 wk in BCS patients. The primary endpoint was the rate of acute skin toxicities previously reported.

Here, we report the secondary end points of late toxicities, cosmesis, local recurrence, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Late skin toxicities were recorded according to the Radiotherapy and Oncology Group (RTOG) scoring criteria. Cosmetic outcomes were assessed using the Harvard/National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP)/RTOG breast cosmesis and the Late Effects Normal Tissue/Subjective Objective Management Analytic (LENT/SOMA) scales for the breast and chest wall, respectively. Kaplan-Meier estimates of DFS and OS were calculated, and 5-year DFS and OS rates (with approximate 95% CIs) were estimated.

RESULTS: Late grade ≥ 2 chest wall induration, hypopigmentation and subcutaneous fibrosis were seen in 3 (6%), 3 (6%) and 1 (2%) patients, respectively. Chest wall cosmesis was excellent/good in 34 (72%) and fair/bad in 13 (28%) patients.

In BCS patients, grade 2 skin induration, subcutaneous fibrosis and edema was observed in 1 patient (11%) each. Cosmesis was excellent/good in 7 (78%) and fair/bad in 2 (22%) patients. Late grade ≥ 2 arm edema, pain and shoulder stiffness were reported by 1 (2%), 2 (4%) and 2 (4%) patients, respectively. No local recurrences were observed. Five patients developed distant metastases (10%). Seven patients died (14%). The 5-year DFS and OS rate was 90% (95% CI: 77–96%) and 88% (95% CI: 75–94%), respectively.

CONCLUSION: Hypofractionated radiotherapy in 2 weeks in patients with breast cancer was associated with minimal late toxicity, good cosmetic outcome and excellent local control. This trial may be of relevance for developing countries where resources are limited. 

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