Vol 7, No 4 (2021)
Review paper
Published online: 2022-03-29

open access

Page views 5092
Article views/downloads 171
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

Ocular lesions in Behçet’s disease

Grzegorz Chmielewski1, Jakub Kuna1, Magdalena Krajewska-Włodarczyk1
Rheumatol. Forum 2021;7(4):165-168.


Behçet’s disease is a rare systemic vasculitis that involves both arteries and veins of various sizes. The main symptoms of the condition are aphthous mouth ulcers and genital ulcers, skin and ocular lesions, neurological disorders, arthritis and gastrointestinal (GI) complications. Ocular manifestations have the greatest impact on the deterioration of patients’ quality of life, as they may cause vision loss. The most typical ocular lesion is posterior uveitis. Often ocular involvement may initially be asymptomatic and difficult to diagnose on standard ophthalmic examination. All patients diagnosed with Behçet’s disease should have regular check-ups using the latest diagnostic methods. The treatment of patients with Behçet’s disease and ocular manifestations requires the cooperation of a rheumatologist and an ophthalmologist to achieve the best results.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file


  1. Adeeb F, Stack AG, Fraser AD. Knitting the Threads of Silk through Time: Behçet's Disease-Past, Present, and Future. Int J Rheumatol. 2017; 2017: 2160610.
  2. Woźniacka A, Sysa-Jędrzejowska A, Jurowski P, et al. Morbus Behçet - a rare disease in Central Europe. Arch Med Sci. 2015; 11(6): 1189–1196.
  3. Greco A, De Virgilio A, Ralli M, et al. Behçet's disease: New insights into pathophysiology, clinical features and treatment options. Autoimmun Rev. 2018; 17(6): 567–575.
  4. Leccese P, Alpsoy E. Behçet's Disease: An Overview of Etiopathogenesis. Front Immunol. 2019; 10: 1067.
  5. Perazzio SF, Andrade LEC, de Souza AWS. Understanding Behçet's Disease in the Context of Innate Immunity Activation. Front Immunol. 2020; 11: 586558.
  6. Mehmood N, Low L, Wallace GR. Behçet's Disease-Do Microbiomes and Genetics Collaborate in Pathogenesis? Front Immunol. 2021; 12: 648341.
  7. Kone-Paut I, Barete S, Bodaghi B, et al. Collaborators. French recommendations for the management of Behçet's disease. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2021; 16(Suppl 1): 352.
  8. McNally TW, Damato EM, Murray PI, et al. An update on the use of biologic therapies in the management of uveitis in Behçet's disease: a comprehensive review. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2017; 12(1): 130.
  9. Saadoun D, Wechsler B. Behçet's disease. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2012; 7: 20.
  10. Kokturk A. Clinical and Pathological Manifestations with Differential Diagnosis in Behçet's Disease. Patholog Res Int. 2012; 2012: 690390.
  11. Abd El Latif E, Abdel Kader Fouly Galal M, Tawfik MA, et al. Pattern of Uveitis Associated with Behçet's Disease in an Egyptian Cohort. Clin Ophthalmol. 2020; 14: 4005–4014.
  12. Chams H, Mohtasham N, Davatchi F, et al. Ophthalmic findings in Behcet׳s disease: Cases without apparent ocular signs. J Curr Ophthalmol. 2015; 27(1-2): 46–50.
  13. Kaçmaz RO, Kempen JH, Newcomb C, et al. Systemic Immunosuppressive Therapy for Eye Diseases Cohort Study Group. Ocular inflammation in Behçet disease: incidence of ocular complications and of loss of visual acuity. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008; 146(6): 828–836.
  14. Saadoun D, Cassoux N, Wechsler B, et al. [Ocular manifestations of Behçet's disease]. Rev Med Interne. 2010; 31(8): 545–550.
  15. Zakka FR, Chang PY, Giuliari GP, et al. Current trends in the management of ocular symptoms in Adamantiades-Behçet's disease. Clin Ophthalmol. 2009; 3: 567–579.
  16. Çakar Özdal P. Behçet's Uveitis: Current Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approach. Turk J Ophthalmol. 2020; 50(3): 169–182.
  17. Gueudry J, Leclercq M, Saadoun D, et al. Old and New Challenges in Uveitis Associated with Behçet's Disease. J Clin Med. 2021; 10(11).
  18. Tugal-Tutkun I. Behçet's Uveitis. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2009; 16(4): 219–224.
  19. Yüksel H, Türkcü FM, Hamidi C, et al. Ocular Blood Flow Changes in Behçet Disease Patients with/without Thrombotic Disease. Neuroophthalmology. 2014; 38(3): 122–126.
  20. Kim M, Kwon HJ, Choi EY, et al. Correlation between Fluorescein Angiographic Findings and Visual Acuity in Behçet Retinal Vasculitis. Yonsei Med J. 2015; 56(4): 1087–1096.
  21. Chung YRi, Cho EH, Jang S, et al. Choroidal Thickness Indicates Subclinical Ocular and Systemic Inflammation in Eyes with Behçet Disease without Active Inflammation. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2018; 32(4): 290–295.
  22. Ozguler Y, Leccese P, Christensen R, et al. 2018 update of the EULAR recommendations for the management of Behçet's syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis. 2018; 77(6): 808–818.