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Vol 19, No 3 (2022)
Research paper
Published online: 2021-12-10
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Post-traumatic stress disorder, suicide risk, feeling of loneliness and life satisfaction in the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic

Iga Rybarczyk1, Tytus Koweszko2
Psychiatria 2022;19(3):183-193.

Abstract

Wstęp: Wybuch pandemii COVID-19 jest niespotykaną dotąd sytuacją kryzysu epidemicznego o zasięgu ogólnoświatowym. Badanie miało na celu określenie zmian w nasileniu objawów zespołu stresu pourazowego, ryzyka samobójstwa, poczucia samotności i subiektywnej satysfakcji z życia w ogólnej populacji z uwzględnieniem różnic międzypłciowych, w okresie dwóch pierwszych fal pandemii COVID-19. Materiał i metody: Grupa badana składała się z 303 osób z ogólnej populacji w wieku 16–84 (50,2% kobiet i 49,8% mężczyzn). Badanie przebiegało dwuetapowo. W pierwszym etapie wzięło udział 150 respondentów, w drugim 153. Wykorzystano następujące metody badawcze: Zrewidowaną Skalę Wpływu Zdarzeń IES-R, Skalę Pomiaru Poczucia Samotności DJGLS, Kwestionariusz Zachowań Samobójczych SBQ-R, Drabinę Cantrila CSASS oraz kwestionariusz demograficzno-opisowy. Badanie zostało przeprowadzone w formie elektronicznej ankiety internetowej. Wyniki: W obu falach pandemii stwierdzono dodatnią korelację pomiędzy poczuciem samotności a zagrożeniem samobójczym oraz ogólnym poziomem i objawami PTSD: intruzjami i pobudzeniem. U kobiet zaobserwowano wzrost ogólnego poziomu stresu pourazowego, a także wyższe objawy intruzji i unikania. U kobiet posiadanie dzieci stanowiło czynnik chroniący przed samobójstwem w obu falach pandemii, a u mężczyzn jedynie w pomiarze podczas drugiej fali. Różnica deklarowanej satysfakcji z życia w obu falach pandemii okazała się istotnie wyższa w drugim pomiarze, przy czym dotyczyło to wyłącznie satysfakcji odnośnie do okresu sprzed pandemii. Wnioski: Wdrożenie odpowiednich interwencji kryzysowych i długoterminowych ocen kontrolnych zarówno osób narażonych na kontakt z wirusem COVID-19, jak i wszystkich poddanych izolacji społecznej, stanowi priorytet w zakresie profilaktyki zdrowia psychicznego.

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