open access

Ahead of print
Review paper
Published online: 2021-06-10
Get Citation

Risk factors and primary prevention of lung cancer. Cessation of cigarette addiction

Paweł Krawczyk, Rodryg Ramlau, Justyna Błach, Robert Kieszko, Kazimierz Roszkowski-Ślisz, Tomasz Kucharczyk, Stanisław Kieszko, Janusz Milanowski
DOI: 10.5603/OCP.2021.0011

open access

Ahead of print
REVIEW ARTICLES
Published online: 2021-06-10

Abstract

Despite the huge knowledge about the risk factors associated with lung cancer, this disease remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in highly developed countries. The reason for this phenomenon is the increasing pollution of the natural environment and, above all, the difficulties in eliminating the addiction to smoking. In large Polish urban agglomerations, the exposure to particulate matter containing hydrocarbons on its surface, to free hydrocarbons, nitrogen and sulphur oxides is constantly increasing. Moreover, almost 25% of the Polish population smoke cigarettes and the elimination of smoking addiction through psychotherapy, nicotine replacement therapy and pharmacotherapy are sometimes ineffective. This article presents that the use of tobacco-burning products other than cigarettes (e.g., cigars or pipes) and products containing marijuana are as dangerous to health as classical cigarettes. Other nicotine-containing products have also appeared: e-cigarettes and tobacco heating systems. These products are highly addictive to nicotine, but the aerosols, that are produced by them, contain fewer toxic substances than cigarette smoke. Therefore, there are reasons to use these products instead of traditional cigarettes in people who are highly addicted to nicotine (after exhaustion of other treatment options) to reduce health risks, including lung cancer risk. However, it must be evoked that only a complete smoking cessation and the use of nicotine-containing products could be effective in reducing the risk of lung cancer.

Abstract

Despite the huge knowledge about the risk factors associated with lung cancer, this disease remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in highly developed countries. The reason for this phenomenon is the increasing pollution of the natural environment and, above all, the difficulties in eliminating the addiction to smoking. In large Polish urban agglomerations, the exposure to particulate matter containing hydrocarbons on its surface, to free hydrocarbons, nitrogen and sulphur oxides is constantly increasing. Moreover, almost 25% of the Polish population smoke cigarettes and the elimination of smoking addiction through psychotherapy, nicotine replacement therapy and pharmacotherapy are sometimes ineffective. This article presents that the use of tobacco-burning products other than cigarettes (e.g., cigars or pipes) and products containing marijuana are as dangerous to health as classical cigarettes. Other nicotine-containing products have also appeared: e-cigarettes and tobacco heating systems. These products are highly addictive to nicotine, but the aerosols, that are produced by them, contain fewer toxic substances than cigarette smoke. Therefore, there are reasons to use these products instead of traditional cigarettes in people who are highly addicted to nicotine (after exhaustion of other treatment options) to reduce health risks, including lung cancer risk. However, it must be evoked that only a complete smoking cessation and the use of nicotine-containing products could be effective in reducing the risk of lung cancer.

Get Citation

Keywords

lung cancer; environment; smoking; smoking cessation; e-cigarettes; heat not burn products

About this article
Title

Risk factors and primary prevention of lung cancer. Cessation of cigarette addiction

Journal

Oncology in Clinical Practice

Issue

Ahead of print

Article type

Review paper

Published online

2021-06-10

DOI

10.5603/OCP.2021.0011

Keywords

lung cancer
environment
smoking
smoking cessation
e-cigarettes
heat not burn products

Authors

Paweł Krawczyk
Rodryg Ramlau
Justyna Błach
Robert Kieszko
Kazimierz Roszkowski-Ślisz
Tomasz Kucharczyk
Stanisław Kieszko
Janusz Milanowski

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

Wydawcą serwisu jest  "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., ul. Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl