Online first
Review paper
Published online: 2024-06-21

open access

Page views 51
Article views/downloads 16
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

Mechanisms of neoplastic cell survival using melanoma as an example

Krystian Kasperowicz1, Anna Gruszczyńska2, Krzysztof Kowalik3, Andrzej Modrzejewski3

Abstract

We discuss various mechanisms of carcinogenesis using melanoma as an example. The article presents the cellular mechanism inducing pathological angiogenesis in neoplastic cells and the significance of the inflammatory process in carcinogenesis. A good understanding of the pathophysiology of tumors is key to creating new drugs and new forms of treatment. Exploring the mechanisms of tumor formation contributes to improving new therapies (new drugs, immunotherapy) and achieving higher survival rates in patients suffering from melanoma and other cancers. The article allows for a better understanding of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file

References

  1. Alicea GM, Rebecca VW. Emerging strategies to treat rare and intractable subtypes of melanoma. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2021; 34(1): 44–58.
  2. Broekaert SMC, Roy R, Okamoto I, et al. Genetic and morphologic features for melanoma classification. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2010; 23(6): 763–770.
  3. Koizumi K, Shintani T, Hayashido Y, et al. VEGF-A promotes the motility of human melanoma cells through the VEGFR1-PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2022; 58(8): 758–770.
  4. Cancer Research UK. Melanoma skin cancer statistics 2016-2018.
  5. Arnold M, Singh D, Laversanne M, et al. Global Burden of Cutaneous Melanoma in 2020 and Projections to 2040. JAMA Dermatol. 2022; 158(5): 495–503.
  6. Kim SK, Cho SW. The Evasion Mechanisms of Cancer Immunity and Drug Intervention in the Tumor Microenvironment. Front Pharmacol. 2022; 13: 868695.
  7. Tucci M, Passarelli A, Mannavola F, et al. Immune System Evasion as Hallmark of Melanoma Progression: The Role of Dendritic Cells. Front Oncol. 2019; 9: 1148.
  8. Sumimoto H, Imabayashi F, Iwata T, et al. The BRAF-MAPK signaling pathway is essential for cancer-immune evasion in human melanoma cells. J Exp Med. 2006; 203(7): 1651–1656.
  9. Passarelli A, Mannavola F, Stucci LS, et al. Immune system and melanoma biology: a balance between immunosurveillance and immune escape. Oncotarget. 2017; 8(62): 106132–106142.
  10. Wu X, Gu Z, Chen Y, et al. Application of PD-1 Blockade in Cancer Immunotherapy. Comput Struct Biotechnol J. 2019; 17: 661–674.
  11. Larkin J, Chiarion-Sileni V, Gonzalez R, et al. Five-Year Survival with Combined Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Advanced Melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2019; 381(16): 1535–1546.
  12. Hanahan D, Weinberg RA. Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation. Cell. 2011; 144(5): 646–674.
  13. Fusco N, Sajjadi E, Venetis K, et al. Alterations and Their Role in Cancer Management: Are We Making Headway on Precision Medicine? Genes (Basel). 2020; 11(7).
  14. Davies MA. The role of the PI3K-AKT pathway in melanoma. Cancer J. 2012; 18(2): 142–147.
  15. Fresno Vara JA, Casado E, de Castro J, et al. PI3K/Akt signalling pathway and cancer. Cancer Treat Rev. 2004; 30(2): 193–204.
  16. Laugier F, Finet-Benyair A, André J, et al. RICTOR involvement in the PI3K/AKT pathway regulation in melanocytes and melanoma. Oncotarget. 2015; 6(29): 28120–28131.
  17. Inamdar GS, Madhunapantula SV, Robertson GP. Targeting the MAPK pathway in melanoma: why some approaches succeed and other fail. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010; 80(5): 624–637.
  18. Apte RS, Chen DS, Ferrara N. VEGF in Signaling and Disease: Beyond Discovery and Development. Cell. 2019; 176(6): 1248–1264.
  19. Ferrara N. Binding to the extracellular matrix and proteolytic processing: two key mechanisms regulating vascular endothelial growth factor action. Mol Biol Cell. 2010; 21(5): 687–690.
  20. Jain RK. Molecular regulation of vessel maturation. Nat Med. 2003; 9(6): 685–693.
  21. Marneros AG. Tumor angiogenesis in melanoma. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2009; 23(3): 431–46, vii.
  22. Neagu M, Constantin C, Caruntu C, et al. Inflammation: A key process in skin tumorigenesis. Oncol Lett. 2019; 17(5): 4068–4084.
  23. Daoud M, Broxtermann PN, Schorn F, et al. XIAP promotes melanoma growth by inducing tumour neutrophil infiltration. EMBO Rep. 2022; 23(6): e53608.
  24. Zhang J, Liu J, Wu J, et al. Progression of the role of CRYAB in signaling pathways and cancers. OncoTargets and Therapy. 2019; 12: 4129–4139.
  25. Lillo S, Saleh M. Inflammasomes in Cancer Progression and Anti-Tumor Immunity. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2022; 10: 839041.
  26. Braicu C, Buse M, Busuioc C, et al. A Comprehensive Review on MAPK: A Promising Therapeutic Target in Cancer. Cancers (Basel). 2019; 11(10).