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Diagnosis and treatment of patients with breast cancer and mutation in the BRCA1/2 genes

Joanna Kufel-Grabowska1, Bartosz Wasąg2


Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Poland and worldwide, second only to lung cancer in terms of mortality. Germline mutations account for approximately 5–10% of all breast cancer cases, with mutations in the BRCA1/2 genes being the most frequently identified. The presence of pathogenic variants in the BRCA1/2 genes is associated with a more than 60% risk of developing breast cancer, a 40–60% risk of ovarian cancer in women with a BRCA1 mutation, and a 13–30% risk in women with a BRCA2 variant. Breast cancer is often diagnosed at a younger age in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. The prevalence and increased accessibility of genetic testing, especially next-generation sequencing, lead to a higher number of diagnosed individuals and healthy family members. Identifying a pathogenic variant in the BRCA1/2 genes, analyzing a family history, and genetic counseling enables the development of individual recommendations for further management. This article aims to present the diagnostic and therapeutic approach in breast cancer patients with a pathogenic variant in the BRCA1/2 genes.

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