Vol 17, No 4 (2021)
Case report
Published online: 2021-04-07

open access

Page views 983
Article views/downloads 922
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

Genetically burdened transgender man during gender reassignment process with two primary neoplasms: a case report

Agnieszka Bobola12, Anita Gorzelak-Magiera1, Katarzyna Steinhof-Radwańska3, Andrzej Lorek24, Michał Kliber12, Iwona Gisterek25
DOI: 10.5603/OCP.2021.0009
Oncol Clin Pract 2021;17(4):183-186.


Transgender is defined as an incongruence between the assigned at birth sex and an experienced gender identity. The biological sex is neither familiar nor acceptable to transgender people. Gender-affirming hormone treatment (GHT) is a multidisciplinary approach aiming to develop and maintain physical characteristics of the desirable sex. The influence of exogenous hormones on the cancer pathogenesis and development is a subject of ceaseless studies and observations. However incomplete statistical and epidemiological data hamper deducing about the risk of cancer among these people. The article describes a case of a transgender female-to-male (FtM) patient during gender transition with two primary neoplasms (endometrial cancer and colon cancer) as well as Lynch syndrome and von Recklinghausen’s disease confirmed by next-generation sequencing (NGS).

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file


  1. Pratt-Chapman M, Potter J. Cancer Care Considerations for Sexual and Gender Minority Patients. Oncology Issues. 2019; 34(6): 26–36.
  2. de Blok CJM, Dreijerink KMA, den Heijer M. Cancer Risk in Transgender People. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2019; 48(2): 441–452.
  3. Cathcart-Rake EJ, Lightner DJ, Quevedo FJ, et al. Cancer in Transgender Patients: One Case in 385,820 Is Indicative of a Paucity of Data. J Oncol Pract. 2018; 14(4): 270–272.
  4. Coleman E, Bockting W, Botzer M, et al. Standards of Care for the Health of Transsexual, Transgender, and Gender-Nonconforming People, Version 7. International Journal of Transgenderism. 2012; 13(4): 165–232.
  5. Robacha A. Transseksualizm. In: Lew-Starowicz M, Lew-Starowicz Z, Skrzypulec-Plinta W. ed. Seksuologia. PZWL , Warszawa 2018: 287–298.
  6. Singh S, Resnick KE. Lynch Syndrome and Endometrial Cancer. South Med J. 2017; 110(4): 265–269.
  7. NCCN. Cancer risks in Lynch syndrome by gene . https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/genetics_colon.pdf (27.12.2019).
  8. Ten Broeke SW, van der Klift HM, Tops CMJ, et al. Cancer Risks for PMS2-Associated Lynch Syndrome. J Clin Oncol. 2018; 36(29): 2961–2968.
  9. Gutmann DH, Ferner RE, Listernick RH, et al. Neurofibromatosis type 1. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2017; 3: 17004.
  10. Uusitalo, E. Distinctive cancer associations in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. J Clin Oncol. 2016; 34: 1978–1986.
  11. Perrone AM, Cerpolini S, Maria Salfi NC, et al. Effect of long-term testosterone administration on the endometrium of female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals. J Sex Med. 2009; 6(11): 3193–3200.
  12. Mueller A, Kiesewetter F, Binder H, et al. Long-term administration of testosterone undecanoate every 3 months for testosterone supplementation in female-to-male transsexuals. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007; 92(9): 3470–3475.
  13. Slagter MH, Gooren LJG, Scorilas A, et al. Effects of long-term androgen administration on breast tissue of female-to-male transsexuals. J Histochem Cytochem. 2006; 54(8): 905–910.
  14. Hembree WC, Cohen-Kettenis PT, Gooren L, et al. Endocrine Treatment of Gender-Dysphoric/Gender-Incongruent Persons: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017; 102(11): 3869–3903.
  15. Chan KJ, Jolly D, Liang JJ, et al. ESTROGEN LEVELS DO NOT RISE WITH TESTOSTERONE TREATMENT FOR TRANSGENDER MEN. Endocr Pract. 2018; 24(4): 329–333.
  16. de Blok CJM, Wiepjes CM, Nota NM, et al. Breast cancer risk in transgender people receiving hormone treatment: nationwide cohort study in the Netherlands. BMJ. 2019; 365: l1652.
  17. Fledderus AC, Gout HA, Ogilvie AC, et al. Breast malignancy in female-to-male transsexuals: systematic review, case report, and recommendations for screening. Breast. 2020; 53: 92–100.
  18. Stone JP, Hartley RL, Temple-Oberle C. Breast cancer in transgender patients: A systematic review. Part 2: Female to Male. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2018; 44(10): 1463–1468.