Vol 16, No 5 (2020)
Guidelines / Expert consensus
Published online: 2020-10-29
Get Citation

Breast cancer

Editors: Jacek Jassem, Maciej Krzakowski, Authors: Jacek Jassem, Maciej Krzakowski, Barbara Bobek-Billewicz, Renata Duchnowska, Arkadiusz Jeziorski, Wojciech Olszewski, Elżbieta Senkus-Konefka, Hanna Tchórzewska-Korba, Piotr Wysocki
Oncol Clin Pract 2020;16(5):207-260.
Vol 16, No 5 (2020)
GUIDELINES FOR DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT
Published online: 2020-10-29

Abstract

Not available

Abstract

Not available
Get Citation

Keywords

breast cancer, diagnostics, treatment, recommendations

About this article
Title

Breast cancer

Journal

Oncology in Clinical Practice

Issue

Vol 16, No 5 (2020)

Article type

Guidelines / Expert consensus

Pages

207-260

Published online

2020-10-29

Bibliographic record

Oncol Clin Pract 2020;16(5):207-260.

Keywords

breast cancer
diagnostics
treatment
recommendations

Authors

Editors: Jacek Jassem
Maciej Krzakowski
Authors: Jacek Jassem
Maciej Krzakowski
Barbara Bobek-Billewicz
Renata Duchnowska
Arkadiusz Jeziorski
Wojciech Olszewski
Elżbieta Senkus-Konefka
Hanna Tchórzewska-Korba
Piotr Wysocki

References (173)
  1. Didkowska J, Wojciechowska U, Czaderny K i wsp. Nowotwory złośliwe w Poslce w 2017 roku. Ministerdstwo Zdrowia, Warszawa 2019.
  2. Duffy SW, Vulkan D, Cuckle H, et al. Effect of mammographic screening from age 40 years on breast cancer mortality (UK Age trial): final results of a randomised, controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2020; 21(9): 1165–1172.
  3. Perry N, Broeders M, de Wolf C. European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis European Commission. Wyd. 4. European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis European Commission. Wyd. 4. European Commission, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luksemburg 2006.
  4. Spak DA, Plaxco JS, Santiago L, et al. BI-RADS fifth edition: A summary of changes. Diagn Interv Imaging. 2017; 98(3): 179–190.
  5. Brożek I, Limon J. Poradnictwo genetyczne w dziedzicznym raku piersi. W: Jassem J, Krzakowski M (red). Rak piersi. Praktyczny przewodnik dla lekarzy. Via Medica, Gdańsk. 2009: 20–31.
  6. NCCN Clinical practice guidelines in oncology: genetic/familial high risk assessment: breast & ovarian. Version 2.2016 ed2016. www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/genetics_screening.pdf (24.10.2017).
  7. Paluch-Shimon S, Cardoso F, Sessa C, et al. ESMO Guidelines Committee. Prevention and screening in BRCA mutation carriers and other breast/ovarian hereditary cancer syndromes: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for cancer prevention and screening. Ann Oncol. 2016; 27(suppl 5): v103–v110.
  8. Kurian AW, Hare EE, Mills MA, et al. Clinical evaluation of a multiple-gene sequencing panel for hereditary cancer risk assessment. J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32(19): 2001–2009.
  9. Antoniou AC, Hardy R, Walker L, et al. Predicting the likelihood of carrying a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation: validation of BOADICEA, BRCAPRO, IBIS, Myriad and the Manchester scoring system using data from UK genetics clinics. J Med Genet. 2008; 45(7): 425–431.
  10. Levy-Lahad E, Friedman E. Cancer risks among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Br J Cancer. 2007; 96(1): 11–15.
  11. Kuhl C, Schrading S, Leutner C, et al. Mammography, breast ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging for surveillance of women at high familial risk for breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23(33): 8469–8476.
  12. De Felice F, Marchetti C, Musella A, et al. Bilateral risk-reduction mastectomy in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: a meta-analysis. Ann Surg Oncol. 2015; 22(9): 2876–2880.
  13. Mavaddat N, Antoniou AC, Mooij TM, et al. Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy, natural menopause, and breast cancer risk: an international prospective cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Breast Cancer Res. 2020; 22(1): 8.
  14. Schmid P, Adams S, Rugo HS, et al. IMpassion130 Trial Investigators. Atezolizumab and Nab-Paclitaxel in Advanced Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2018; 379(22): 2108–2121.
  15. Wang M, Li J, Huang J, et al. The Predictive Role of Mutation Status on Inhibitors in Breast Cancer Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Biomed Res Int. 2020; 2020: 1598037.
  16. Robson M, Im SA, Senkus E, et al. Olaparib for metastatic breast cancer in patients with a germline BRCA mutation. N Engl J Med. 2017; 377(6): 523–533.
  17. Wolff A, Hammond M, Allison K, et al. Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Testing in Breast Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists Clinical Practice Guideline Focused Update. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2018; 142(11): 1364–1382.
  18. Symmans WF, Peintinger F, Hatzis C, et al. Measurement of residual breast cancer burden to predict survival after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2007; 25(28): 4414–4422.
  19. Ellis MJ, Tao Yu, Luo J, et al. Outcome prediction for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer based on postneoadjuvant endocrine therapy tumor characteristics. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008; 100(19): 1380–1388.
  20. Amin BA, Edge SB. AJCC cancer staging manual. 8th ed. Springer, New York 2017.
  21. Miller BT, Abbott AM, Tuttle TM. The influence of preoperative MRI on breast cancer treatment. Ann Surg Oncol. 2012; 19(2): 536–540.
  22. Sardanelli F, Boetes C, Borisch B, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast: recommendations from the EUSOMA working group. Eur J Cancer. 2010; 46(8): 1296–1316.
  23. Mann RM, Balleyguier C, Baltzer PA, et al. European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI), with language review by Europa Donna–The European Breast Cancer Coalition. Breast MRI: EUSOBI recommendations for women's information. Eur Radiol. 2015; 25(12): 3669–3678.
  24. Iacconi C. Diffusion and perfusion of the breast. Eur J Radiol. 2010; 76(3): 386–390.
  25. Sardanelli F, Fallenberg EM, Clauser P, et al. European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI), with language review by Europa Donna — The European Breast Cancer Coalition. Mammography: an update of the EUSOBI recommendations on information for women. Insights Imaging. 2017; 8(1): 11–18.
  26. Bhimani C, Matta D, Roth RG, et al. Contrast-enhanced Spectral Mammography: Technique, Indications, and Clinical Applications. Acad Radiol. 2017; 24(1): 84–88.
  27. Krzakowski M, Rutkowski P, Jassem J, et al. Recommendations on the application of positron emission tomography in oncology. Oncol Clin Pract. 2015; 11: 155–171.
  28. Kumar R, Chauhan A, Zhuang H, et al. Clinicopathologic factors associated with false negative FDG-PET in primary breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006; 98(3): 267–274.
  29. Biganzoli L, Cardoso F, Beishon M, et al. The requirements of a specialist breast centre. Breast. 2020; 51: 65–84.
  30. Morrow M, Van Zee KJ, Solin LJ, et al. Society of Surgical Oncology-American Society for Radiation Oncology-American Society of Clinical Oncology Consensus Guideline on Margins for Breast-Conserving Surgery With Whole-Breast Irradiation in Ductal Carcinoma In Situ. J Clin Oncol. 2016; 34(33): 4040–4046.
  31. Goodwin A, Parker S, Ghersi D, et al. Post-operative radiotherapy for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 11: CD000563.
  32. Sagara Y, Freedman RA, Vaz-Luis I, et al. Patient Prognostic Score and Associations With Survival Improvement Offered by Radiotherapy After Breast-Conserving Surgery for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: A Population-Based Longitudinal Cohort Study. J Clin Oncol. 2016; 34(11): 1190–1196.
  33. Stuart KE, Houssami N, Taylor R, et al. Long-term outcomes of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis. BMC Cancer. 2015; 15: 890.
  34. Mitchell KB, Kuerer H. Ductal carcinoma in situ: treatment update and current trends. Curr Oncol Rep. 2015; 17(11): 48.
  35. Wapnir IL, Dignam JJ, Fisher B, et al. Long-term outcomes of invasive ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences after lumpectomy in NSABP B-17 and B-24 randomized clinical trials for DCIS. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011; 103(6): 478–488.
  36. Narod SA, Iqbal J, Giannakeas V, et al. Breast cancer mortality after a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ. JAMA Oncol. 2015; 1(7): 888–896.
  37. Cuzick J, Sestak I, Pinder S, et al. Effect of tamoxifen and radiotherapy in women with locally excised ductal carcinoma in situ: long-term results from the UK/ANZ DCIS trial. Lancet Oncol. 2011; 12(1): 21–29.
  38. Margolese R, Cecchini R, Julian T, et al. Anastrozole versus tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with ductal carcinoma in situ undergoing lumpectomy plus radiotherapy (NSABP B-35): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 clinical trial. The Lancet. 2016; 387(10021): 849–856.
  39. Fisher B, Anderson S, Bryant J, et al. Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing total mastectomy, lumpectomy, and lumpectomy plus irradiation for the treatment of invasive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2002; 347(16): 1233–1241.
  40. Veronesi U, Cascinelli N, Mariani L, et al. Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized study comparing breast-conserving surgery with radical mastectomy for early breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2002; 347(16): 1227–1232.
  41. Moran MS, Schnitt SJ, Giuliano AE, et al. Society of Surgical Oncology, American Society for Radiation Oncology. Society of Surgical Oncology-American Society for Radiation Oncology consensus guideline on margins for breast-conserving surgery with whole-breast irradiation in stages I and II invasive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32(14): 1507–1515.
  42. Lyman GH, Temin S, Edge SB, et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for patients with early-stage breast cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline update. J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32(13): 1365–1383.
  43. Giuliano AE, Ballman KV, McCall L, et al. Effect of Axillary Dissection vs No Axillary Dissection on 10-Year Overall Survival Among Women With Invasive Breast Cancer and Sentinel Node Metastasis: The ACOSOG Z0011 (Alliance) Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2017; 318(10): 918–926.
  44. Donker M, Tienhoven Gv, Straver M, et al. Radiotherapy or surgery of the axilla after a positive sentinel node in breast cancer (EORTC 10981-22023 AMAROS): a randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 3 non-inferiority trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014; 15(12): 1303–1310.
  45. Galimberti V, Cole BF, Zurrida S, et al. International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial 23-01 investigators. Axillary dissection versus no axillary dissection in patients with sentinel-node micrometastases (IBCSG 23-01): a phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013; 14(4): 297–305.
  46. Burstein HJ, Curigliano G, Loibl S, et al. Members of the St. Gallen International Consensus Panel on the Primary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer 2019. Estimating the benefits of therapy for early-stage breast cancer: the St. Gallen International Consensus Guidelines for the primary therapy of early breast cancer. Ann Oncol. 2019; 30(10): 1541–1557.
  47. Darby S, McGale P, Correa C, et al. Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG). Effect of radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery on 10-year recurrence and 15-year breast cancer death: meta-analysis of individual patient data for 10, 801 women in 17 randomised trials. Lancet. 2011; 378: 1707–1716.
  48. Smith BD, Bentzen SM, Correa CR, et al. Fractionation for whole breast irradiation: an American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) evidence-based guideline. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011; 81(1): 59–68.
  49. Brunt AM, Haviland JS, Wheatley DA, et al. Hypofractionated breast radiotherapy for 1 week versus 3 weeks (FAST-Forward): 5-year efficacy and late normal tissue effects results from a multicentre, non-inferiority, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2020; 395: 1613–1626.
  50. Bartelink H, Maingon P, Poortmans P, et al. Whole-breast irradiation with or without a boost for patients treated with breast-conserving surgery for early breast cancer: 20-year follow-up of a randomised phase 3 trial. The Lancet Oncology. 2015; 16(1): 47–56.
  51. Vicini FA, Cecchini RS, White JR, et al. Long-term primary results of accelerated partial breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery for early-stage breast cancer: a randomised, phase 3, equivalence trial. Lancet. 2019; 394(10215): 2155–2164.
  52. Whelan TJ, Julian JA, Berrang TS, et al. RAPID Trial Investigators. External beam accelerated partial breast irradiation versus whole breast irradiation after breast conserving surgery in women with ductal carcinoma in situ and node-negative breast cancer (RAPID): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2019; 394(10215): 2165–2172.
  53. Whelan TJ, Olivotto IA, Levine MN, et al. MA.20 Study Investigators. Regional Nodal Irradiation in Early-Stage Breast Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015; 373(4): 307–316.
  54. McGale P, Taylor C, Correa C, et al. EBCTCG (Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group). Effect of radiotherapy after mastectomy and axillary surgery on 10-year recurrence and 20-year breast cancer mortality: meta-analysis of individual patient data for 8135 women in 22 randomised trials. 2014; 383:. Lancet. 2014; 383: 2127–2135.
  55. Wang SL, Fang H, Song YW, et al. Hypofractionated versus conventional fractionated postmastectomy radiotherapy for patients with high-risk breast cancer: a randomised, non-inferiority, open-label, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2019; 20(3): 352–360.
  56. Poortmans PM, Collette S, Kirkove C, et al. EORTC Radiation Oncology and Breast Cancer Groups. Internal Mammary and Medial Supraclavicular Irradiation in Breast Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015; 373(4): 317–327.
  57. Mauri D, Pavlidis N, Ioannidis JPA. Neoadjuvant versus adjuvant systemic treatment in breast cancer: a meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005; 97(3): 188–194.
  58. Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (EBCTCG). Long-term outcomes for neoadjuvant versus adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer: meta-analysis of individual patient data from ten randomised trials. Lancet Oncol. 2018; 19: 27–39.
  59. Gagliato Dd, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Lei X, et al. Clinical impact of delaying initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32(8): 735–744.
  60. Albain K, Barlow W, Ravdin P, et al. Adjuvant chemotherapy and timing of tamoxifen in postmenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive, node-positive breast cancer: a phase 3, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2009; 374(9707): 2055–2063.
  61. Sparano JA, Gray RJ, Makower DF, et al. Adjuvant Chemotherapy Guided by a 21-Gene Expression Assay in Breast Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2018; 379(2): 111–121.
  62. Cardoso F, van't Veer LJ, Bogaerts J, et al. MINDACT Investigators. 70-Gene Signature as an Aid to Treatment Decisions in Early-Stage Breast Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2016; 375(8): 717–729.
  63. Yi M, Huo L, Koenig KB, et al. Which threshold for ER positivity? a retrospective study based on 9639 patients. Ann Oncol. 2014; 25(5): 1004–1011.
  64. Davies C, Pan H, Godwin J, et al. Long-term effects of continuing adjuvant tamoxifen to 10 years versus stopping at 5 years after diagnosis of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer: ATLAS, a randomised trial. Lancet. 2013; 381(9869): 805–816.
  65. Al-Mubarak M, Tibau A, Templeton AJ, et al. Extended adjuvant tamoxifen for early breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Miller T.W. (red.). PloS ONE. 2014; 9: e88238.
  66. Masuda N, Sagara Y, Kinoshita T, et al. Neoadjuvant anastrozole versus tamoxifen in patients receiving goserelin for premenopausal breast cancer (STAGE): a double-blind, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012; 13(4): 345–352.
  67. Pagani O, Regan MM, Walley BA, et al. TEXT and SOFT Investigators, International Breast Cancer Study Group. Adjuvant exemestane with ovarian suppression in premenopausal breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2014; 371(2): 107–118.
  68. Pagani O, Regan MM, Walley BA, et al. TEXT and SOFT Investigators, International Breast Cancer Study Group. Adjuvant exemestane with ovarian suppression in premenopausal breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2014; 371(2): 107–118.
  69. Lambertini M, Moore HCF, Leonard RCF, et al. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonists During Chemotherapy for Preservation of Ovarian Function and Fertility in Premenopausal Patients With Early Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Individual Patient-Level Data. J Clin Oncol. 2018; 36(19): 1981–1990.
  70. Cataliotti L, Buzdar AU, Noguchi S, et al. Comparison of anastrozole versus tamoxifen as preoperative therapy in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer: the Pre-Operative "Arimidex" Compared to Tamoxifen (PROACT) trial. Cancer. 2006; 106(10): 2095–2103.
  71. Smith IE, Dowsett M, Ebbs SR, et al. IMPACT Trialists Group. Neoadjuvant treatment of postmenopausal breast cancer with anastrozole, tamoxifen, or both in combination: the Immediate Preoperative Anastrozole, Tamoxifen, or Combined with Tamoxifen (IMPACT) multicenter double-blind randomized trial. J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23(22): 5108–5116.
  72. Eiermann W, Paepke S, Appfelstaedt J, et al. Letrozole Neo-Adjuvant Breast Cancer Study Group. Preoperative treatment of postmenopausal breast cancer patients with letrozole: A randomized double-blind multicenter study. Ann Oncol. 2001; 12: 1527–1532.
  73. Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG). Aromatase inhibitors versus tamoxifen in early breast cancer: patient-level meta-analysis of the randomised trials. Lancet 2015; 386: 1341–1352, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)61074-1, indexed in Pubmed: 26211827.
  74. Goss PE, Ingle JN, Martino S, et al. Randomized trial of letrozole following tamoxifen as extended adjuvant therapy in receptor-positive breast cancer: updated findings from NCIC CTG MA.17. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005; 97(17): 1262–1271.
  75. Jakesz R, Greil R, Gnant M, et al. Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group. Extended adjuvant therapy with anastrozole among postmenopausal breast cancer patients: results from the randomized Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group Trial 6a. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007; 99(24): 1845–1853.
  76. Goss PE, Ingle JN, Pritchard KI, et al. Extending aromatase-inhibitor adjuvant therapy to 10 years. N Engl J Med. 2016; 375(3): 209–219.
  77. Metzger Filho O, Giobbie-Hurder A, Mallon E, et al. Relative Effectiveness of Letrozole Compared With Tamoxifen for Patients With Lobular Carcinoma in the BIG 1-98 Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33(25): 2772–2779.
  78. Ibrahim EM, Al-Homaidh A. Physical activity and survival after breast cancer diagnosis: meta-analysis of published studies. Med Oncol. 2011; 28(3): 753–765.
  79. Desmarais JE, Looper KJ. Interactions between tamoxifen and antidepressants via cytochrome P450 2D6. J Clin Psychiatry. 2009; 70(12): 1688–1697.
  80. Braithwaite RS, Chlebowski RT, Lau J, et al. Meta-analysis of vascular and neoplastic events associated with tamoxifen. J Gen Intern Med. 2003; 18(11): 937–947.
  81. Bonadonna G, Valagussa P, Moliterni A, et al. Adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in node-positive breast cancer: the results of 20 years of follow-up. N Engl J Med. 1995; 332(14): 901–906.
  82. Del Ma, De Pl, Bruzzi P, et al. Gruppo Italiano Mammella (GIM) investigators. Fluorouracil and dose-dense chemotherapy in adjuvant treatment of patients with early-stage breast cancer: an open-label, 2 × 2 factorial, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2015; 385: 1863–1872.
  83. Blum JL, Flynn PJ, Yothers G, et al. Anthracyclines in Early Breast Cancer: The ABC Trials-USOR 06-090, NSABP B-46-I/USOR 07132, and NSABP B-49 (NRG Oncology). J Clin Oncol. 2017; 35(23): 2647–2655.
  84. Sparano JA, Zhao F, Martino S, et al. Long-Term Follow-Up of the E1199 Phase III Trial Evaluating the Role of Taxane and Schedule in Operable Breast Cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33(21): 2353–2360.
  85. Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (EBCTCG). Increasing the dose intensity of chemotherapy by more frequent administration or sequential scheduling: a patient-level meta-analysis of 37 298 women with early breast cancer in 26 randomised trials. Lancet. 2019; 393(10179): 1440–1452.
  86. Golshan M, Cirrincione CT, Sikov WM, et al. Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology. Impact of the addition of carboplatin and/or bevacizumab to neoadjuvant once-per-week paclitaxel followed by dose-dense doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide on pathologic complete response rates in stage II to III triple-negative breast cancer: CALGB 40603 (Alliance). J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33(1): 13–21.
  87. Tung N, Arun B, Hacker MR, et al. TBCRC 031: Randomized Phase II Study of Neoadjuvant Cisplatin Versus Doxorubicin-Cyclophosphamide in Germline Carriers With HER2-Negative Breast Cancer (the INFORM trial). J Clin Oncol. 2020; 38(14): 1539–1548.
  88. Loibl S, O'Shaughnessy J, Untch M, et al. Addition of the PARP inhibitor veliparib plus carboplatin or carboplatin alone to standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer (BrighTNess): a randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2018; 19(4): 497–509.
  89. Loibl S, Weber KE, Timms KM, et al. Survival analysis of carboplatin added to an anthracycline/taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy and HRD score as predictor of response-final results from GeparSixto. Ann Oncol. 2018; 29(12): 2341–2347.
  90. Masuda N, Lee SJ, Ohtani S, et al. Adjuvant capecitabine for breast cancer after preoperative chemotherapy. N Engl J Med. 2017; 376(22): 2147–2159.
  91. Goldhirsch A, Gelber RD, Piccart-Gebhart MJ, et al. Herceptin Adjuvant (HERA) Trial Study Team. 2 years versus 1 year of adjuvant trastuzumab for HER2-positive breast cancer (HERA): an open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2013; 382: 1021–1028.
  92. Slamon D, Eiermann W, Robert N, et al. Breast Cancer International Research Group. Adjuvant trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2011; 365(14): 1273–1283.
  93. Gianni L, Eiermann W, Semiglazov V, et al. Neoadjuvant and adjuvant trastuzumab in patients with HER2-positive locally advanced breast cancer (NOAH): follow-up of a andomized controlled superiority trial with a parallel HER2-negative cohort. The Lancet Oncology. 2014; 15: 640–647.
  94. Joensuu H, Fraser J, Wildiers H, et al. Effect of Adjuvant Trastuzumab for a Duration of 9 Weeks vs 1 Year With Concomitant Chemotherapy for Early Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Breast Cancer: The SOLD Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Oncol. 2018; 4(9): 1199–1206.
  95. Pivot X, Romieu G, Debled M, et al. PHARE trial investigators, PHARE trial investigators. 6 months versus 12 months of adjuvant trastuzumab for patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer (PHARE): a randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013; 14(8): 741–748.
  96. Dieci MV, Conte P, Bisagni G, et al. Association of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes with distant disease-free survival in the ShortHER randomized adjuvant trial for patients with early HER2+ breast cancer. Ann Oncol. 2019; 30(3): 418–423.
  97. Earl HM, Hiller L, et al. Vallier A-L PERSEPHONE: 6 versus 12 months (m) of adjuvant trastuzumab in patients (pts) with HER2 positive (+) early breast cancer (EBC): Randomised phase 3 non-inferiority trial with definitive 4-year (yr) disease-free survival (DFS) results. J Clin Oncol. 2018; 36: 506.
  98. Tabernero J, Vyas M, Giuliani R, et al. Biosimilars: a position paper of the European Society for Medical Oncology, with particular reference to oncology prescribers. ESMO Open. 2016; 1(6): e000142.
  99. Gianni L, Pienkowski T, Im YH, et al. 5-year analysis of neoadjuvant pertuzumab and trastuzumab in patients with locally advanced, inflammatory, or early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer (NeoSphere): a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016; 17: 791–800.
  100. Perez EA, Suman VJ, Davidson NE, et al. Sequential versus concurrent trastuzumab in adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011; 29(34): 4491–4497.
  101. Tolaney SM, Barry WT, Dang CT, et al. Adjuvant paclitaxel and trastuzumab for node-negative, HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015; 372(2): 134–141.
  102. von Minckwitz G, Huang CS, Mano MS, et al. KATHERINE Investigators. Trastuzumab emtansine for residual invasive HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2019; 380(7): 617–628.
  103. Piccart-Gebhart M, Holmes E, Baselga J, et al. Adjuvant Lapatinib and Trastuzumab for Early Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Breast Cancer: Results From the Randomized Phase III Adjuvant Lapatinib and/or Trastuzumab Treatment Optimization Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2016; 34(10): 1034–1042.
  104. Piccart M, Procter M, Fumagalli D i wsp. A randomised multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing chemotherapy plus trastuzumab plus pertuzumab versus chemotherapy plus trastuzumab plus placebo as adjuvant therapy in patients with operable HER2-positive early breast cancer. San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2019; abstract GS1-04.
  105. Martin M, Holmes F, Ejlertsen B, et al. Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in HER2-positive breast cancer (ExteNET): 5-year analysis of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017; 18(12): 1688–1700.
  106. Adjuvant bisphosphonate treatment in early breast cancer: meta-analyses of individual patient data from randomised trials. Lancet. 2015; 386(10001): 1353–1361.
  107. Muss HB, Berry DA, Cirrincione CT, et al. CALGB Investigators. Adjuvant chemotherapy in older women with early-stage breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2009; 360(20): 2055–2065.
  108. Perrone F, Nuzzo F, Di Rella F, et al. Weekly docetaxel versus CMF as adjuvant chemotherapy for older women with early breast cancer: final results of the randomized phase III ELDA trial. Ann Oncol. 2015; 26(4): 675–682.
  109. Giordano S. Breast Cancer in Men. N Engl J Med. 2018; 378(24): 2311–2320.
  110. Wu SG, Zhang WW, Sun JY, et al. Comparable survival between additional radiotherapy and local surgery in occult breast cancer after axillary lymph node dissection: a population-based analysis. J Cancer. 2017; 8(18): 3849–3855.
  111. Roila F, Molassiotis A, Herrstedt J, et al. participants of the MASCC/ESMO Consensus Conference Copenhagen 2015. 2016 MASCC and ESMO guideline update for the prevention of chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and of nausea and vomiting in advanced cancer patients. Ann Oncol. 2016; 27(suppl 5): v119–v133.
  112. Nangia J, Wang T, Osborne C, et al. Effect of a Scalp Cooling Device on Alopecia in Women Undergoing Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: The SCALP Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2017; 317(6): 596–605.
  113. Tsuyuki S, Yamagami K, Yoshibayashi H, et al. Effectiveness and safety of surgical glove compression therapy as a prophylactic method against nanoparticle albumin-bound-paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. Breast. 2019; 47: 22–27.
  114. Grossmann M, Ramchand SK, Milat F, et al. Assessment and Management of Bone Health in Women With Oestrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Receiving Endocrine Therapy: Position Statement of the Endocrine Society of Australia, the Australian and New Zealand Bone & Mineral Society, the Australasian Menopause Society and the Clinical Oncology Society of Australia. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2018; 89: 280–296.
  115. Aebi S, Gelber S, Anderson SJ, et al. CALOR investigators. Chemotherapy for isolated locoregional recurrence of breast cancer (CALOR): a randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014; 15: 156–163.
  116. Waeber M, Castiglione-Gertsch M, Dietrich D, et al. Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK). Adjuvant therapy after excision and radiation of isolated postmastectomy locoregional breast cancer recurrence: definitive results of a phase III randomized trial (SAKK 23/82) comparing tamoxifen with observation. Ann Oncol. 2003; 14(8): 1215–1221.
  117. Klijn JG, Blamey RW, Boccardo F, et al. Combined Hormone Agents Trialists' Group and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Combined tamoxifen and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist versus LHRH agonist alone in premenopausal advanced breast cancer: a meta-analysis of four randomized trials. J Clin Oncol. 2001; 19(2): 343–353.
  118. Dear RF, McGeechan K, Jenkins MC, et al. Combination versus sequential single agent chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013(12): CD008792.
  119. Slamon DJ, Leyland-Jones B, Shak S, et al. Use of chemotherapy plus a monoclonal antibody against HER2 for metastatic breast cancer that overexpresses HER2. N Engl J Med. 2001; 344(11): 783–792.
  120. Robertson J, Bondarenko I, Trishkina E, et al. Fulvestrant 500 mg versus anastrozole 1 mg for hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer (FALCON): an international, randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2016; 388: 2997–3005.
  121. Gibson LJ, Dawson CK, Lawrence DH, et al. Aromatase inhibitors for treatment of advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007(1): CD003370.
  122. Im SA, Lu YS, Bardia A, et al. Overall survival with ribociclib plus endocrine therapy in breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2019; 381(4): 307–316.
  123. Turner NC, Finn RS, Martin M, et al. Palbociclib and Letrozole in Advanced Breast Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2016; 375: 1925–1936.
  124. Turner NC, Ro J, André F, et al. PALOMA3 Study Group. Palbociclib in Hormone-Receptor-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015; 373(3): 209–219.
  125. Finn RS, Crown JP, Lang I, et al. The cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor palbociclib in combination with letrozole versus letrozole alone as first-line treatment of oestrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative, advanced breast cancer (PALOMA-1/TRIO-18): a randomised phase 2 study. Lancet Oncol 2015; 16: 25–35. .
  126. Goetz MP, Toi M, Campone M, et al. MONARCH 3: abemaciclib as initial therapy for advanced breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2017; 35(32): 3638–3646.
  127. Cristofanilli M, Turner N, Bondarenko I, et al. Fulvestrant plus palbociclib versus fulvestrant plus placebo for treatment of hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer that progressed on previous endocrine therapy (PALOMA-3): final analysis of the multicentre, double-blind, phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016; 17(4): 425–439.
  128. Slamon DJ, Neven P, Chia S, et al. Phase III Randomized Study of Ribociclib and Fulvestrant in Hormone Receptor-Positive, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Advanced Breast Cancer: MONALEESA-3. J Clin Oncol. 2020; 36: 2465–2472.
  129. Sledge GW, Toi M, Neven P, et al. The Effect of Abemaciclib Plus Fulvestrant on Overall Survival in Hormone Receptor-Positive, ERBB2-Negative Breast Cancer That Progressed on Endocrine Therapy-MONARCH 2: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Oncol 2019; 6: 116-124. [Epub ahead of print].
  130. Baselga J, Campone M, Piccart M, et al. Everolimus in postmenopausal hormone-receptor-positive advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012; 366(6): 520–529.
  131. André F, Ciruelos E, Rubovszky G, et al. SOLAR-1 Study Group. Alpelisib for -Mutated, Hormone Receptor-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2019; 380(20): 1929–1940.
  132. Balduzzi S, Mantarro S, Guarneri V, et al. Trastuzumab-containing regimens for metastatic breast cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014(6): CD006242.
  133. Swain S, Miles D, Kim SB, et al. End-of-study analysis from the phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo (Pla)-controlled CLEOPATRA study of first-line (1L) pertuzumab (P), trastuzumab (H), and docetaxel (D) in patients (pts) with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). J Clin Oncol. 2019; 37(15_suppl): 1020.
  134. Miles D, Im YH, Fung A, et al. Effect of docetaxel duration on clinical outcomes: exploratory analysis of CLEOPATRA, a phase III randomized controlled trial. Ann Oncol. 2017; 28(11): 2761–2767.
  135. Kaufman B, Mackey JR, Clemens MR, et al. Trastuzumab plus anastrozole versus anastrozole alone for the treatment of postmenopausal women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive, hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer: results from the randomized phase III TAnDEM study. J Clin Oncol. 2009; 27(33): 5529–5537.
  136. Johnston S, Pippen J, Pivot X, et al. Lapatinib combined with letrozole versus letrozole and placebo as first-line therapy for postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009; 27(33): 5538–5546.
  137. Rimawi M, Ferrero JM, de la Haba-Rodriguez J, et al. PERTAIN Study Group. First-Line Trastuzumab Plus an Aromatase Inhibitor, With or Without Pertuzumab, in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive and Hormone Receptor-Positive Metastatic or Locally Advanced Breast Cancer (PERTAIN): A Randomized, Open-Label Phase II Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2018; 36(28): 2826–2835.
  138. Johnston SRD, Hegg R, Im SA, et al. Phase III, Randomized Study of Dual Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) Blockade With Lapatinib Plus Trastuzumab in Combination With an Aromatase Inhibitor in Postmenopausal Women With HER2-Positive, Hormone Receptor-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer: ALTERNATIVE. J Clin Oncol. 2018; 36(8): 741–748.
  139. Verma S, Miles D, Gianni L, et al. EMILIA Study Group. Trastuzumab emtansine for HER2-positive advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012; 367(19): 1783–1791.
  140. Krop I, Kim SB, Martin A, et al. Trastuzumab emtansine versus treatment of physician's choice in patients with previously treated HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (TH3RESA): final overall survival results from a randomised open-label phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017; 18(6): 743–754.
  141. Cameron D, Casey M, Press M, et al. A phase III randomized comparison of lapatinib plus capecitabine versus capecitabine alone in women with advanced breast cancer that has progressed on trastuzumab: updated efficacy and biomarker analyses. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008; 112(3): 533–543.
  142. Blackwell KL, Burstein HJ, Storniolo AM, et al. Overall survival benefit with lapatinib in combination with trastuzumab for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer: final results from the EGF104900 Study. J Clin Oncol. 2012; 30(21): 2585–2592.
  143. Murthy RK, Loi S, Okines A, et al. Tucatinib, trastuzumab, and capecitabine for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2020; 382(7): 597–609.
  144. Modi S, Saura C, Yamashita T, et al. DESTINY-Breast01 Investigators. Trastuzumab deruxtecan in previously treated HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2020; 382(7): 610–621.
  145. Saura C, Oliveira M, Feng YH, et al. Neratinib + capecitabine versus lapatinib + capecitabine in patients with HER2+ metastatic breast cancer previously treated with ≥ 2 HER2-directed regimens: Findings from the multinational, randomized, phase III NALA trial. J Clin Oncol. 2019; 37(15_suppl): 1002.
  146. Sledge GW, Neuberg D, Bernardo P, et al. Phase III trial of doxorubicin, paclitaxel, and the combination of doxorubicin and paclitaxel as front-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer: an intergroup trial (E1193). J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21(4): 588–592.
  147. Munzone E, Colleoni M. Clinical overview of metronomic chemotherapy in breast cancer. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2015; 12(11): 631–644.
  148. Tutt A, Tovey H, Cheang MC, et al. Carboplatin in BRCA1/2-mutated and triple-negative breast cancer BRCAness subgroups: the TNT Trial. Nat Med. 2018; 24(5): 628–637.
  149. Litton JK, Rugo HS, Ettl J, et al. Talazoparib in patients with advanced breast cancer and a germline BRCA mutation. N Engl J Med. 2018; 379(8): 753–763.
  150. Bardia A, Mayer IA, Vahdat LT, et al. Sacituzumab govitecan-hziy in refractory metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2019; 380(8): 741–751.
  151. Ramakrishna N, Temin S, Chandarlapaty S, et al. Recommendations on disease management for patients with advanced human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer and brain metastases: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline. J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32(19): 2100–2108.
  152. Kantarjian H, Yap HY, Hortobagyi G, et al. Hormonal therapy for metastatic male breast cancer. Arch Intern Med. 1983; 143(2): 237–240.
  153. Mauras N, O'Brien KO, Klein KO, et al. Estrogen suppression in males: metabolic effects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000; 85(7): 2370–2377.
  154. Zagouri F, Sergentanis TN, Azim HA, et al. Aromatase inhibitors in male breast cancer: a pooled analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015; 151(1): 141–147.
  155. Van Poznak CH, Temin S, Yee GC, et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology. American Society of Clinical Oncology executive summary of the clinical practice guideline update on the role of bone-modifying agents in metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011; 29(9): 1221–1227.
  156. Hortobagyi GN, Van Poznak C, Harker WG, et al. Continued Treatment Effect of Zoledronic Acid Dosing Every 12 vs 4 Weeks in Women With Breast Cancer Metastatic to Bone: The OPTIMIZE-2 Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Oncol. 2017; 3(7): 906–912.
  157. Amadori D, Aglietta M, Alessi B, et al. Efficacy and safety of 12-weekly versus 4-weekly zoledronic acid for prolonged treatment of patients with bone metastases from breast cancer (ZOOM): a phase 3, open-label, randomised, non-inferiority trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013; 14(7): 663–670.
  158. Himelstein AL, Foster JC, Khatcheressian JL, et al. Effect of Longer-Interval vs Standard Dosing of Zoledronic Acid on Skeletal Events in Patients With Bone Metastases: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2017; 317(1): 48–58.
  159. Stopeck AT, Lipton A, Body JJ, et al. Denosumab compared with zoledronic acid for the treatment of bone metastases in patients with advanced breast cancer: a randomized, double-blind study. J Clin Oncol. 2010; 28(35): 5132–5139.
  160. Lutz S, Balboni T, Jones J, et al. Palliative radiation therapy for bone metastases: Update of an ASTRO Evidence-Based Guideline. Pract Radiat Oncol. 2017; 7(1): 4–12.
  161. Finlay I, Mason M, Shelley M. Radioisotopes for the palliation of metastatic bone cancer: a systematic review. Lancet Oncol. 2005; 6(6): 392–400.
  162. Thomas A, Khan SA, Chrischilles EA, et al. Initial Surgery and Survival in Stage IV Breast Cancer in the United States, 1988-2011. JAMA Surg. 2016; 151(5): 424–431.
  163. Khan SA, Zhao F, Solin LJ, et al. A randomized chase III trial of the value of Elary local therapy for the intact primary tumor in patients with metastatic breast cancer: ECOG-ACRIN 2108. J Clin Oncol 2020; LBA2.
  164. Lee J. A meta-analysis of the association between physical activity and breast cancer mortality. Cancer Nurs. 2019; 42(4): 271–285.
  165. Lahart IM, Metsios GS, Nevill AM, et al. Physical activity for women with breast cancer after adjuvant therapy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018; 1: CD011292.
  166. Playdon MC, Bracken MB, Sanft TB, et al. Weight gain after breast cancer diagnosis and all-cause mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015; 107(12): djv275.
  167. Holmberg L, Iversen OE, Rudenstam CM, et al. HABITS Study Group. Increased risk of recurrence after hormone replacement therapy in breast cancer survivors. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008; 100(7): 475–482.
  168. Passarelli MN, Newcomb PA, Hampton JM, et al. Cigarette smoking before and after breast cancer diagnosis: mortality from breast cancer and smoking-related diseases. J Clin Oncol. 2016; 34(12): 1315–1322.
  169. de Bock GH, Bonnema J, van der Hage J, et al. Effectiveness of routine visits and routine tests in detecting isolated locoregional recurrences after treatment for early-stage invasive breast cancer: a meta-analysis and systematic review. J Clin Oncol. 2004; 22(19): 4010–4018.
  170. Montgomery DA, Krupa K, Cooke TG. Follow-up in breast cancer: does routine clinical examination improve outcome? A systematic review of the literature. Br J Cancer. 2007; 97(12): 1632–1641.
  171. Lu W, de Bock GH, Schaapveld M, et al. The value of routine physical examination in the follow up of women with a history of early breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2011; 47(5): 676–682.
  172. Moschetti I, Cinquini M, Lambertini M, et al. Follow-up strategies for women treated for early breast cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016(5): CD001768.
  173. Jassem J, Duchnowska R, Kawecki A, et al. Badania kontrolne po leczeniu w najczęstszych nowotworach litych u dorosłych. Nowotwory J Oncol. 2014; 64(5): 415–435.

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

Wydawcą serwisu jest  "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., ul. Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl