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Cervical cancer in Poland — epidemiology, prevention, and treatment pathways

Michał Seweryn1, Agnieszka Leszczyńska1, Jerzy Jakubowicz2, Tomasz Banaś3

Abstract

Introduction. Cervical cancer in Poland has a higher incidence and mortality rates, and lower 5-year survival rates compared to Western Europe. The Polish government has initiated screening and vaccination programs to improve outcomes. This study reviews cervical cancer epidemiology in Poland and assesses adherence to preventative measures. Additionally, we tried to assess the potential for improving the epidemiological situation in the future. 

Material and methods. Data were collected from the Polish National Cancer Registry and the National Health Fund. We performed desk research using international databases and peer-reviewed publications to contextualize Poland’s situation within Europe. 

Results. The incidence rate of cervical cancer in Poland is gradually decreasing, with an annual percent change of -3.3 (95% CI from –5.2 to –1.4; p < 0.05). The age-standardized incidence rate of 18.9 ranks Poland 20th of 27 European countries, while the mortality rate of 10.5 is twice as high as the European average. With only 55.1% of diagnosed women surviving 5 years, Poland ranks near the bottom in Europe. Additionally, only 10% of Poles have received anti-HPV immunization, and cytology screening coverage does not exceed 25%.

Conclusions. Cervical cancer outcomes in Poland remain significantly below the European average. There is a pressing need for enhanced preventative measures and education in women’s health.

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