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Systemic treatment of EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer

Rafał Ł. Czyżykowski12, Ewa K. Wrona34, Agata Tałajko3, Aleksandra M. Hasińska3, Piotr J. Potemski14

Abstract

Lung cancer, particularly non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), remains a significant global health challenge, responsible for a substantial portion of cancer-related deaths. This review focuses on the pivotal role of epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) mutations in NSCLC, exploring their prevalence, diagnostic methods, and implications for targeted therapy. Common mutations in EGFR, constituting approximately 90% of all mutations, are associated with better prognosis and predict favourable response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Meanwhile, the remaining 10–15% comprise atypical mutations, including uncommon exon 18 mutations, exon 20 insertions, de novo T790M mutations, compound mutations, and others. The frequency of uncommon mutations has recently increased, posing challenges due to their largely unknown biological and clinical implications. The review underscores the necessity of summarizing recent scientific discoveries in EGFR mutations to enhance our understanding of their diverse nature and optimize targeted therapeutic approaches in NSCLC patients.

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