open access

Vol 22, No 2 (2019)
Original articles
Published online: 2019-05-31
Submitted: 2018-12-04
Accepted: 2019-05-24
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Improved procedures of Sc(OH)3 precipitation and UTEVA extraction for 44Sc separation

Wioletta Wojdowska, Dariusz Pawlak, Izabela Cieszykowska, Małgorzata Żółtowska, Tomasz Janiak, Tadeusz Barcikowski, Anna Stolarz, Jarosław Choiński, Józef Parus, Piotr Garnuszek, Renata Mikołajczak
DOI: 10.5603/NMR.a2019.0013
·
Pubmed: 31482557
·
Nucl. Med. Rev 2019;22(2):56-59.

open access

Vol 22, No 2 (2019)
Original articles
Published online: 2019-05-31
Submitted: 2018-12-04
Accepted: 2019-05-24

Abstract

BACKGROUND: 44Sc is becoming attractive as a PET radionuclide due to its decay characteristics. It can be produced from 44Ca present in natural calcium with 2.08% abundance.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The targets were mostly prepared from natural CaCO3 or metallic calcium in the form of pellets. After irradiation they were dissolved in 3 M hydrochloric acid and 44Sc was separated from excess of calcium by precipitation of scandium hydroxide using ammonia. Alternatively, targets were dissolved in 11 M hydrochloric acid and 44Sc was separated by extraction chromatography on UTEVA resin. As the next step, in both processes 44Sc was further purified on a cation exchange resin. Initially, the separation procedures were developed with 46Sc as a tracer. Gamma spectrometry with a high purity germanium detector was used to determine the separation efficiency. Finally, the CaCO3 pellet with 99.2% enrichment in 44Ca was activated with protons via 44Ca(p,n)44Sc nuclear reaction.

RESULTS: Altogether twenty two irradiations and separations were performed. The working procedures were developed and the quality of separated 44Sc solution was confirmed by radiolabeling of DOTATATE. The chemical purity of the product was sufficient for preclinical experiments. At the end of around 1 hour proton beam irradiation of CaCO3 pellet with 99.2% enrichment in 44Ca the obtained radioactivity of 44Sc was more than 4.8 GBq.

CONCLUSION: 44Sc can be produced inexpensively with adequate yields and radionuclidic purity via 44Ca(p,n)44Sc nuclear reaction in small cyclotrons. The recovery yield in both investigated separation methods was comparable and amounted above 90%. The obtained 44Sc was pure in terms of radionuclide and chemical purity, as shown by the results of peptide radiolabeling.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: 44Sc is becoming attractive as a PET radionuclide due to its decay characteristics. It can be produced from 44Ca present in natural calcium with 2.08% abundance.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The targets were mostly prepared from natural CaCO3 or metallic calcium in the form of pellets. After irradiation they were dissolved in 3 M hydrochloric acid and 44Sc was separated from excess of calcium by precipitation of scandium hydroxide using ammonia. Alternatively, targets were dissolved in 11 M hydrochloric acid and 44Sc was separated by extraction chromatography on UTEVA resin. As the next step, in both processes 44Sc was further purified on a cation exchange resin. Initially, the separation procedures were developed with 46Sc as a tracer. Gamma spectrometry with a high purity germanium detector was used to determine the separation efficiency. Finally, the CaCO3 pellet with 99.2% enrichment in 44Ca was activated with protons via 44Ca(p,n)44Sc nuclear reaction.

RESULTS: Altogether twenty two irradiations and separations were performed. The working procedures were developed and the quality of separated 44Sc solution was confirmed by radiolabeling of DOTATATE. The chemical purity of the product was sufficient for preclinical experiments. At the end of around 1 hour proton beam irradiation of CaCO3 pellet with 99.2% enrichment in 44Ca the obtained radioactivity of 44Sc was more than 4.8 GBq.

CONCLUSION: 44Sc can be produced inexpensively with adequate yields and radionuclidic purity via 44Ca(p,n)44Sc nuclear reaction in small cyclotrons. The recovery yield in both investigated separation methods was comparable and amounted above 90%. The obtained 44Sc was pure in terms of radionuclide and chemical purity, as shown by the results of peptide radiolabeling.

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Keywords

44Sc production; cyclotron; natural calcium; Sc(OH)3 precipitation; UTEVA extraction

About this article
Title

Improved procedures of Sc(OH)3 precipitation and UTEVA extraction for 44Sc separation

Journal

Nuclear Medicine Review

Issue

Vol 22, No 2 (2019)

Pages

56-59

Published online

2019-05-31

DOI

10.5603/NMR.a2019.0013

Pubmed

31482557

Bibliographic record

Nucl. Med. Rev 2019;22(2):56-59.

Keywords

44Sc production
cyclotron
natural calcium
Sc(OH)3 precipitation
UTEVA extraction

Authors

Wioletta Wojdowska
Dariusz Pawlak
Izabela Cieszykowska
Małgorzata Żółtowska
Tomasz Janiak
Tadeusz Barcikowski
Anna Stolarz
Jarosław Choiński
Józef Parus
Piotr Garnuszek
Renata Mikołajczak

References (10)
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