open access

Vol 71, No 3 (2021)
Review paper
Published online: 2021-06-09
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Personalised medical management of patients with melanoma (part 1)

Justyna Gil, Izabela Łaczmańska, Maria M. Sąsiadek, Marcin Ziętek
DOI: 10.5603/NJO.2021.0032
·
Nowotwory. Journal of Oncology 2021;71(3):169-175.

open access

Vol 71, No 3 (2021)
Genetics and oncology
Published online: 2021-06-09

Abstract

In recent years, a dynamic increase has been observed in occurrence of melanomas, especially in young and middle-aged patients. This is the reason why curing these patients has become a priority also in the economic context. Melanomas belong to a group of neoplasms of very high genetic heterogeneity. The most common genetic alterations concern two signalling pathways: mitogen-activated pathway (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. Identification of the characteristic molecular changes in the neoplastic tissue allows optimisation and individualisation of the therapy. Thus, it contributes to an increase in successful cancer treatment, reduction of treatment side effects and to improvement of the patients’ quality of life. Currently, the standard management of skin melanoma patients involves – along with surgical treatment and classical chemo/radiotherapy which is now less frequently used – also introduction of targeted therapy focused on molecular changes within the tumour tissue as well as immunotherapy which relies on activating the immune system.

Abstract

In recent years, a dynamic increase has been observed in occurrence of melanomas, especially in young and middle-aged patients. This is the reason why curing these patients has become a priority also in the economic context. Melanomas belong to a group of neoplasms of very high genetic heterogeneity. The most common genetic alterations concern two signalling pathways: mitogen-activated pathway (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. Identification of the characteristic molecular changes in the neoplastic tissue allows optimisation and individualisation of the therapy. Thus, it contributes to an increase in successful cancer treatment, reduction of treatment side effects and to improvement of the patients’ quality of life. Currently, the standard management of skin melanoma patients involves – along with surgical treatment and classical chemo/radiotherapy which is now less frequently used – also introduction of targeted therapy focused on molecular changes within the tumour tissue as well as immunotherapy which relies on activating the immune system.

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Keywords

melanoma; BRAF; NRAS; targeted therapy

About this article
Title

Personalised medical management of patients with melanoma (part 1)

Journal

Nowotwory. Journal of Oncology

Issue

Vol 71, No 3 (2021)

Article type

Review paper

Pages

169-175

Published online

2021-06-09

DOI

10.5603/NJO.2021.0032

Bibliographic record

Nowotwory. Journal of Oncology 2021;71(3):169-175.

Keywords

melanoma
BRAF
NRAS
targeted therapy

Authors

Justyna Gil
Izabela Łaczmańska
Maria M. Sąsiadek
Marcin Ziętek

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