open access

Vol 70, No 5 (2020)
Varia
Published online: 2020-10-05
Get Citation

The surgical anatomy of the mammary gland (part 1.). General structure, embryogenesis, histology, the nipple-areolar complex, the fascia of the glandular tissue and the chest wall

Sławomir Cieśla, Mateusz Wichtowski, Róża Poźniak-Balicka, Dawid Murawa
DOI: 10.5603/NJO.2020.0042
·
Nowotwory. Journal of Oncology 2020;70(5):211-219.

open access

Vol 70, No 5 (2020)
Varia
Published online: 2020-10-05

Abstract

The rapid development of surgical techniques used in breast surgery requires an excellent knowledge of mammary gland anatomy. This article presents the most up-to-date information on embryogenesis as well as the histology and general anatomy of the breast. Particular attention has been given to the structure of the nipple-areolar complex and the anatomy of the chest wall and mammary gland fascia.

Abstract

The rapid development of surgical techniques used in breast surgery requires an excellent knowledge of mammary gland anatomy. This article presents the most up-to-date information on embryogenesis as well as the histology and general anatomy of the breast. Particular attention has been given to the structure of the nipple-areolar complex and the anatomy of the chest wall and mammary gland fascia.

Get Citation

Keywords

mammary gland; anatomy; embryogenesis

Supplementary Files (1)
piśmiennictwo
Download
35KB
About this article
Title

The surgical anatomy of the mammary gland (part 1.). General structure, embryogenesis, histology, the nipple-areolar complex, the fascia of the glandular tissue and the chest wall

Journal

Nowotwory. Journal of Oncology

Issue

Vol 70, No 5 (2020)

Pages

211-219

Published online

2020-10-05

DOI

10.5603/NJO.2020.0042

Bibliographic record

Nowotwory. Journal of Oncology 2020;70(5):211-219.

Keywords

mammary gland
anatomy
embryogenesis

Authors

Sławomir Cieśla
Mateusz Wichtowski
Róża Poźniak-Balicka
Dawid Murawa

References (32)
  1. Stone K, Wheeler A. A Review of Anatomy, Physiology, and Benign Pathology of the Nipple. Ann Surg Oncol. 2015; 22(10): 3236–3240.
  2. Zhang X, Mu D. Mastopexy with Autologous Augmentation in Women After Massive Weight Loss: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2020; 44(3): 1075–1076.
  3. Hassiotou F, Geddes D. Anatomy of the human mammary gland: Current status of knowledge. Clin Anat. 2013; 26(1): 29–48.
  4. Melita D, Innocenti A. Breast Asymmetry, Classification and Algorithm of Treatment: Our Experience. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2020; 44(1): 247–248.
  5. Netter FH. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 6th; Gold 25th Anniversary Edition. Elsevier 2014.
  6. Lemaine V, Simmons PS. The Adolescent Female: Breast and Reproductive Embriology and Anatomy. Clin Anat. 2013; 26: 22–28.
  7. Zanon E, Harp Ch. Skin cleavage lines of the female breast. Eur J Plast Surg. 1993; 16(6): 276–279.
  8. Riggio E, Quattrone P, Nava M. Anatomical study of the breast superficial fascial system: the inframammary fold unit. Eur J Plast Surg. 2000; 23(6): 310–315.
  9. Cooper AP. Anatomy of the Breast. London, UK: Longman, Orme, Green, Browne, and Longmans, 1840. https://jdc.jefferson.edu/cooper/60/ (6.09.2018).
  10. Rusby JE, Brachtel EF, Michaelson JS, et al. Breast duct anatomy in the human nipple: three-dimensional patterns and clinical implications. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007; 106(2): 171–179.
  11. Love SM, Barsky SH. Anatomy of the nipple and breast ducts revisited. Cancer. 2004; 101(9): 1947–1957.
  12. Macéa J, Fregnani J. Anatomy of the Thoracic Wall, Axilla and Breast. Int J Morphol. 2006; 24(4): 691–704.
  13. Hall JE. Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology.13th. Elsevier 2016.
  14. Pandya S, Moore RG. Breast development and anatomy. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 54(1): 91–95.
  15. Ramsay DT, Kent JC, Owens RA, et al. Ultrasound imaging of milk ejection in the breast of lactating women. Pediatrics. 2004; 113(2): 361–367.
  16. Ramsay DT, Mitoulas LR, Kent JC, et al. The use of ultrasound to characterize milk ejection in women using an electric breast pump. J Hum Lact. 2005; 21(4): 421–428.
  17. Gastounioti A, Hsieh MK, Cohen E, et al. Incorporating Breast Anatomy in Computational Phenotyping of Mammographic Parenchymal Patterns for Breast Cancer Risk Estimation. Sci Rep. 2018; 8(1): 17489.
  18. Saeed D, Shousha S. Toker cells of the nipple are commonly associated with underlying sebaceous glands but not with lactiferous ducts. J Clin Pathol. 2014; 67(11): 1010–1012.
  19. Komiya T, Ito N, Imai R, et al. Anatomy of the superficial layer of superficial fascia around the nipple-areola complex. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2015; 39(2): 209–213.
  20. Sappey MPC. Anatomie, Physiologie, Pathologie des vaisseaux Lymphatiques consideres chez L’homme at les Vertebres. A Delahaye and E Lecrosnier, Paris : 1874.
  21. Schlenz I, Kuzbari R, Gruber H, et al. The sensitivity of the nipple-areola complex: an anatomic study. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2000; 105(3): 905–909.
  22. Mota BS, Riera R, Ricci MD, et al. Nipple- and areola-sparing mastectomy for the treatment of breast cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016; 11: CD008932.
  23. Rehnke RD, Groening RM, Van Buskirk ER, et al. Anatomy of the Superficial Fascia System of the Breast: A Comprehensive Theory of Breast Fascial Anatomy. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2018; 142(5): 1135–1144.
  24. Komiya T, Ito N, Imai R, et al. Anatomy of the superficial layer of superficial fascia around the nipple-areola complex. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2015; 39(2): 209–213.
  25. Lockwood TE. Superficial fascial system (SFS) of the trunk and extremities: a new concept. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1991; 87(6): 1009–1018.
  26. Stecco A, Masiero S, Macchi V, et al. The pectoral fascia: anatomical and histological study. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2009; 13(3): 255–261.
  27. Richardson WF, Carman JB. Andreas Vesalius on the Fabric of the Human Body. Book V: The Organs of Nutrition and Generation. Calif: Norman Publishing, Novato 2007.
  28. Brinkman RJ, Hage JJ. Andreas Vesalius' 500th Anniversary: First Description of the Mammary Suspensory Ligaments. World J Surg. 2016; 40(9): 2144–2148.
  29. Stecco A, Macchi V, Masiero S, et al. Pectoral and femoral fasciae: common aspects and regional specializations. Surg Radiol Anat. 2009; 31(1): 35–42.
  30. Vázquez G. Commentary on "anatomy of the surface layer of superficial fascia around the nipple-areola complex". Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2015; 39(3): 396–397.
  31. Nava M, Quattrone P, Riggio E. Focus on the breast fascial system: a new approach for inframammary fold reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1998; 102(4): 1034–1045.
  32. Stecco L, Stecco C. Fascial Manipulation: Practical Part. Piccin, Padova 2009.

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

Wydawcą serwisu jest VM Media sp. z o.o. VM Group sp.k., ul. Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail: viamedica@viamedica.pl