open access

Vol 69, No 3-4 (2019)
Review articles
Published online: 2019-10-31
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Oncogeriatrics (part 2.). Normal and pathological ageing

Jakub Kenig
DOI: 10.5603/NJO.2019.0027
·
Nowotwory. Journal of Oncology 2019;69(3-4):146-149.

open access

Vol 69, No 3-4 (2019)
Review articles
Published online: 2019-10-31

Abstract

There are two ageing processes, one physiological, also known as normal ageing, and that of pathological ageing, which depends on the occurrence of chronic diseases. The essence of the former is a gradual, progressive, and a very indivi­dual restriction of the organs’ functional reserve with age. The changes occur in all cells, tissues and systems and do not affect each organ at the same time, and the rate of change can vary between organs. Therefore, the chronological age alone cannot be the factor determining the terapeutic decisions, including surgical treatment. Among the elderly, there is a distinct situation where acute stress response associated with surgery is imposed on the otherwise ageing-related, reduced physiological reserves and the cumulative effect of any accompanying diseases. Standard preparation for surgery and routine perioperative management in such patients can lead to serious complications. In older persons, even mini­mal injury can exceed the body’s capacity to compensate, especially among those with frailty syndrome. It is critical to understand the physiological changes associated with ageing to better understand the differences in the management of these elderly patients.

Abstract

There are two ageing processes, one physiological, also known as normal ageing, and that of pathological ageing, which depends on the occurrence of chronic diseases. The essence of the former is a gradual, progressive, and a very indivi­dual restriction of the organs’ functional reserve with age. The changes occur in all cells, tissues and systems and do not affect each organ at the same time, and the rate of change can vary between organs. Therefore, the chronological age alone cannot be the factor determining the terapeutic decisions, including surgical treatment. Among the elderly, there is a distinct situation where acute stress response associated with surgery is imposed on the otherwise ageing-related, reduced physiological reserves and the cumulative effect of any accompanying diseases. Standard preparation for surgery and routine perioperative management in such patients can lead to serious complications. In older persons, even mini­mal injury can exceed the body’s capacity to compensate, especially among those with frailty syndrome. It is critical to understand the physiological changes associated with ageing to better understand the differences in the management of these elderly patients.

Get Citation

Keywords

elderly; normal ageing; pathological ageing; frailty syndrome

About this article
Title

Oncogeriatrics (part 2.). Normal and pathological ageing

Journal

Nowotwory. Journal of Oncology

Issue

Vol 69, No 3-4 (2019)

Pages

146-149

Published online

2019-10-31

DOI

10.5603/NJO.2019.0027

Bibliographic record

Nowotwory. Journal of Oncology 2019;69(3-4):146-149.

Keywords

elderly
normal ageing
pathological ageing
frailty syndrome

Authors

Jakub Kenig

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