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Melanoma incidence in 17,252 organ transplant recipients in Poland in 2010–2022

Aleksandra Kulbat12, Karolina Richter23, Marta Krzysztofik4, Krzysztof Batko5, Aleksandra Karwańska6, Marta Kołodziej-Rzepa123, Tomasz Wojewoda78, Wojciech M. Wysocki978
Affiliations
  1. Maria Sklodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland
  2. Chair of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Krakow University, Krakow, Poland
  3. Chair of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Krakow University, 30-705 Krakow, Poland
  4. Department of Dermatology and Venerology, Stefan Zeromski Municipal Hospital, Krakow, Poland
  5. Department of Dermatology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland
  6. Department of Dermatology and Venerology, National Medical Institute MSWiA, Warsaw, Poland
  7. Department of Oncological Surgery, 5th Military Clinical Hospital in Kraków, 30-901 Krakow, Poland
  8. Chair of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Krakow University, 30-705 Krakow, Poland
  9. Maria Skłodowska-Curie Memorial National Research Institute of Oncology, Roentgen 5, 02-781 Warsaw, Poland

open access

Ahead of print
Review articles – Melanoma
Published online: 2024-02-26

Abstract

Introduction. Numerous studies indicate an increased incidence of skin malignancies among organ transplant recipients. Melanoma pose a significant threat to post-transplant recipients, leading to considerable mortality. This study explores the incidence of melanoma after 17,252 organ transplantations in Poland over the past 13 years.

Materials and methods. The data on the occurrence of melanoma in patients after renal, heart, or liver transplantation were obtained from the National Health Fund, encompassing individuals who underwent kidney, heart, or liver transplantation between 2010 and 2022. The analysis focused on skin melanoma (C43).

Results. The study examined skin melanoma in renal (12,250 cases), liver (3,584 cases), and heart (1,418 cases) transplant recipients over thirteen years. Melanoma incidence slightly increased in renal recipients (1-year cumulative incidence 0.016% vs 0.007%, p = 0.024; 5-year cumulative incidence 0.131% vs. 0.040% p < 0.001; the 10-year cumulative incidence 0.213% vs. 0,09, p < 0.001). In liver transplant recipients there is non-significant difference 1-year after transplantation (cumulative incidence 0.03% vs. 0.01%, p = 0.337) but after 5 and 10 year the difference between the two groups remaining statistically significant (5-year cumulative incidence 0.14% vs. 0.04%, p < 0.014; the 10-year cumulative incidence 0.14% vs. 0.09%, p < 0.001). In heart transplant recipients, a paradoxical reduction in incidence was observed compared to the general population (1-year cumulative incidence 0% vs. 0.01%, p = 0.317; 5-year cumulative incidence 0.07% vs. 0.04%, p = 0.049; the 10-year cumulative incidence 0.07% vs. 0.09, p < 0.001).

Conclusions. The incidence of melanoma increases in kidney transplant recipients over the first 10 years post-transplant, with a peak between 4 to 7 years. For heart and liver transplant recipients, melanoma cases occur within the initial 5 years post-transplant, and no new cases were recorded afterward. The long-term surviving kidney, heart, and liver transplant recipients show a steady rise in new cases over time. Our study, based on a thorough analysis of data from the National Health Fund, confirms the link between an elevated risk of melanoma in organ transplant recipients.

Abstract

Introduction. Numerous studies indicate an increased incidence of skin malignancies among organ transplant recipients. Melanoma pose a significant threat to post-transplant recipients, leading to considerable mortality. This study explores the incidence of melanoma after 17,252 organ transplantations in Poland over the past 13 years.

Materials and methods. The data on the occurrence of melanoma in patients after renal, heart, or liver transplantation were obtained from the National Health Fund, encompassing individuals who underwent kidney, heart, or liver transplantation between 2010 and 2022. The analysis focused on skin melanoma (C43).

Results. The study examined skin melanoma in renal (12,250 cases), liver (3,584 cases), and heart (1,418 cases) transplant recipients over thirteen years. Melanoma incidence slightly increased in renal recipients (1-year cumulative incidence 0.016% vs 0.007%, p = 0.024; 5-year cumulative incidence 0.131% vs. 0.040% p < 0.001; the 10-year cumulative incidence 0.213% vs. 0,09, p < 0.001). In liver transplant recipients there is non-significant difference 1-year after transplantation (cumulative incidence 0.03% vs. 0.01%, p = 0.337) but after 5 and 10 year the difference between the two groups remaining statistically significant (5-year cumulative incidence 0.14% vs. 0.04%, p < 0.014; the 10-year cumulative incidence 0.14% vs. 0.09%, p < 0.001). In heart transplant recipients, a paradoxical reduction in incidence was observed compared to the general population (1-year cumulative incidence 0% vs. 0.01%, p = 0.317; 5-year cumulative incidence 0.07% vs. 0.04%, p = 0.049; the 10-year cumulative incidence 0.07% vs. 0.09, p < 0.001).

Conclusions. The incidence of melanoma increases in kidney transplant recipients over the first 10 years post-transplant, with a peak between 4 to 7 years. For heart and liver transplant recipients, melanoma cases occur within the initial 5 years post-transplant, and no new cases were recorded afterward. The long-term surviving kidney, heart, and liver transplant recipients show a steady rise in new cases over time. Our study, based on a thorough analysis of data from the National Health Fund, confirms the link between an elevated risk of melanoma in organ transplant recipients.

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Keywords

skin cancer; melanoma; transplant recipients; transplantation

About this article
Title

Melanoma incidence in 17,252 organ transplant recipients in Poland in 2010–2022

Journal

Nowotwory. Journal of Oncology

Issue

Ahead of print

Article type

Review paper

Published online

2024-02-26

Page views

55

Article views/downloads

38

Keywords

skin cancer
melanoma
transplant recipients
transplantation

Authors

Aleksandra Kulbat
Karolina Richter
Marta Krzysztofik
Krzysztof Batko
Aleksandra Karwańska
Marta Kołodziej-Rzepa
Tomasz Wojewoda
Wojciech M. Wysocki

References (19)
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  4. Lizakowski S, Rutkowski P. Nowotwory u chorych po przeszczepieniu nerki. In: Rutkowski B. ed. Leczenie nerkozastępcze. Wydawnictwo Czelej, Lublin 2007: 409–418.
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  7. Lesnoni La Parola I, Masini C, Nanni G, et al. Kaposi's sarcoma in renal-transplant recipients: experience at the Catholic University in Rome, 1988-1996. Dermatology. 1997; 194(3): 229–233.
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  9. Krajowy Rejestr Nowotworów - Raporty. https://onkologia.org.pl/pl/raporty (01.01.2024).
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  12. Garrett GL, Blanc PD, Boscardin J, et al. Incidence of and Risk Factors for Skin Cancer in Organ Transplant Recipients in the United States. JAMA Dermatol. 2017; 153(3): 296–303.
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