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The type of distribution of PD-L1 positive immune cells and PD-L1 expression in tumor cells correlate with the development of non-classical differentiation in urinary bladder cancer

Mateusz Matusiak, Jarosław Starzyński, Jakub Jóźwicki, Jakub Dzierżawski, Jan Misiak, Wojciech Jóźwicki
DOI: 10.5603/MRJ.a2019.0025

open access

Ahead of print
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2019-05-24

Abstract

Background: The basic diagnostic tool of urinary bladder cancer is the histopathological assessment.
However, it is insufficient to accurately predict the progression of this disease. There is a need to look
for new prognostic factors that will make the therapeutic process more effective. The aim of this study is
to evaluate the effect of activation of a PD1 – PD-L1 immune checkpoint in immune effector cells (IECs)
and tumor cells, on the development of malignancy in the form of non-classic differentiation in urinary
bladder cancer.
Materials and methods: 110 patients with stage pT1-pT4 urothelial bladder carcinoma who underwent radical
cystectomy/cystoprostatectomy between 2011 and 2014 were included in the study. Tumor advancement
(pT stage), grade (G), as well as, non-classic differentiation frequency and number were evaluated pathologically.
In each case, the area of the tumor containing PD-L1+ IECs was analyzed. The distribution of
PD-L1+ immune effector cells within the tumor was also assessed as dispersed or aggregated.
Results: The frequency of non-classic differentiation was significantly lower in urothelial bladder cancer
tumors with a dispersed pattern of distribution of PD-L1+ IECs. A correlation between the extent of PD-L1
expression in tumor cells and the non-classic differentiation number in UBC was identified.
Conclusions: The distribution of cells expressing the immune checkpoint biomarker PD-L1 constitutes a
new prognostic factor and may play a key role in the selection of individualized immunotherapy. In addition,
the evaluation of non-classic differentiation in the tumor may complement the assessment of PD-L1
expression due to its capacity to characterize the current malignant potential of the tumor, whereas the
assessment of extent and distribution of PD-L1+ in tumor-associated immune cells indicates the functional
status of the immune system.

Abstract

Background: The basic diagnostic tool of urinary bladder cancer is the histopathological assessment.
However, it is insufficient to accurately predict the progression of this disease. There is a need to look
for new prognostic factors that will make the therapeutic process more effective. The aim of this study is
to evaluate the effect of activation of a PD1 – PD-L1 immune checkpoint in immune effector cells (IECs)
and tumor cells, on the development of malignancy in the form of non-classic differentiation in urinary
bladder cancer.
Materials and methods: 110 patients with stage pT1-pT4 urothelial bladder carcinoma who underwent radical
cystectomy/cystoprostatectomy between 2011 and 2014 were included in the study. Tumor advancement
(pT stage), grade (G), as well as, non-classic differentiation frequency and number were evaluated pathologically.
In each case, the area of the tumor containing PD-L1+ IECs was analyzed. The distribution of
PD-L1+ immune effector cells within the tumor was also assessed as dispersed or aggregated.
Results: The frequency of non-classic differentiation was significantly lower in urothelial bladder cancer
tumors with a dispersed pattern of distribution of PD-L1+ IECs. A correlation between the extent of PD-L1
expression in tumor cells and the non-classic differentiation number in UBC was identified.
Conclusions: The distribution of cells expressing the immune checkpoint biomarker PD-L1 constitutes a
new prognostic factor and may play a key role in the selection of individualized immunotherapy. In addition,
the evaluation of non-classic differentiation in the tumor may complement the assessment of PD-L1
expression due to its capacity to characterize the current malignant potential of the tumor, whereas the
assessment of extent and distribution of PD-L1+ in tumor-associated immune cells indicates the functional
status of the immune system.

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Keywords

PD-L1; urothelial bladder cancer; tumor microenvironment; immune cell, NDN, immune effector cells, IEC, immunological control point distribution, ICPD

About this article
Title

The type of distribution of PD-L1 positive immune cells and PD-L1 expression in tumor cells correlate with the development of non-classical differentiation in urinary bladder cancer

Journal

Medical Research Journal

Issue

Ahead of print

Published online

2019-05-24

DOI

10.5603/MRJ.a2019.0025

Keywords

PD-L1
urothelial bladder cancer
tumor microenvironment
immune cell
NDN
immune effector cells
IEC
immunological control point distribution
ICPD

Authors

Mateusz Matusiak
Jarosław Starzyński
Jakub Jóźwicki
Jakub Dzierżawski
Jan Misiak
Wojciech Jóźwicki

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